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Application Of Psychological Theories

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Application Of Psychological Theories

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Application Of Psychological Theories

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Discuss about the Application of Psychological Theories.
 
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Introduction
The human memory is very fragile. The initial process for the acquisition of the knowledge is slow and is effortless. In addition, once the mastery has been achieved, the knowledge should be exercised more periodically in order to mitigate the forgetting (Crain, 2015). Understanding of the cognitive mechanisms of the memory can be longstanding goal for the modern experimental psychology, with much hope for the understanding for the will to lead to the practical techniques, which support the learning as well as retention. Education has always been awash for the new ideas about the learning as well as the teaching (Tyner, 2013). The teachers are regularly been bombarded with the suggestions for the reform. The psychological theories are good at explaining why than at making the predictions, in parts because the behavior is the multiply determined. The theories, which will be discussed in this essay, will be classical psychology-dynamic theory, Social Learning theory and the cognitive theory. The use of these theories will examine how they motivate an individual in order to be able utilize the memory techniques in enhancing on their learning.
Social Learning Theory
Learning is social, based on the social learning; studying is typically an intellectual task, which happens in the interpersonal framework as well as the Modeling. People generally understand by means of observing a behaviour along with the positive or perhaps the negative outcomes of the behavior (Neimeyer, 2015). Basing on these point of view people could consequently manage to extorted information in relation to the noticed behavior, after which make the decision depending on that information. The behavior of the student could affect on their environment just as the environment of the learner impacts on their behavior (Siemens, 2014). Understanding on the cognitive learning process as well as the relation to the social context could help the learners to plan better on the instruction and the social environments of the classroom. When planning on the activities, which limit on the social interaction, it is important to note what is helping as well as hindering the learners in the process of learning (Neimeyer, 2015). The use of this theory can help to motivate the leaners. The learners have a good reason or perhaps the motivation to reproduce on their behavior. Understanding what getsthe learners to school each one, each day might be complicated, also it might varies for each person. Utilizing the situations for the effective Modeling depend on the numerous cognitive as well as be behavioural process for instance attention, retention along with motivation (Siemens, 2014). These processes could help to capture on the learners attention or perhaps model on their behaviors later. The essence of any learning is the capturing as well as maintaining of the attention of the learner, which is the key factor. The use of the social learning theory suggest that the learners need to be motivated in their learning (Currie & Atkinson, 2015). The motivation can essentially originate from the reward or the punishment, as when the learners are in the similar situation they could imitate or perhaps avoid on the behavior based on their experiences. According to Bandura, highlights that it is only the external reinforcement, which impact on the learning as well as behavior, but the internal reward, which is regarded as the intrinsic reinforcement, are significant (Siemens, 2014). The internal reinforcement usually comes from the feeling good after undertaking a successful task or perhaps a behavior.
 
Psychology-Dynamic Theory
This theory focusses on how the inner energies as well as the internal forces interact in order to affect the emotional development. The concentrate in the psychodynamics theory is the link, which is available between the energetics of the emotional condition in the id, ego along with the super-ego since they relate with the initial childhood advancement and processes (Walton, 2014). Depending on the Freud is the ego, which that envisions as the battling for the several forces. The id is normally the unacquainted reservoir for the libido, the psychic energy that fuels on the intuition as well as the psychic techniques (Lenz, 2014). The ego generally function as the common manager of the individuality , therefore creating on the choices in relation to the pleasures which can be participated in at the demand of the id , personal safety requirements along with the moral dictates for the superego which would be followed . The superego generally describes the repository for personal moral values, which can be split to the conscience that is on the internalization for the modern society guidelines along with the restrictions in addition to the ego ideal, which can be on the internalization of one goal (Crain, 2015). The psychodynamic model generally concentrate on the dynamic interaction between the id, ego along with the superego. Additionally, it has a tendency to explain or maybe analyse behavior and mental state concerning the innate emotional forces (Siemens, 2014). The psychodynamics is divided continues to be put into the interaction of the emotional and the motivational forces which influence the behavior and the mental states. The second is on the inner forces, which affect the behavior. In accordance with Freud, the development of the personality occurs during the childhood (Currie & Atkinson, 2015). During every one of the stage, the child is normally offered the conflict between the biological drives as well as interpersonal expectation. Successful navigation of the inner issues might lead to the dominance of every of the development stage and ultimately to be fully develop fully individuality. The personal desires on the framework of id, ego and superego ascertain precisely how we act as well as approach the world (Kintsch & Vipond, 2014). The balance of a particular circumstance in the learning process is established about how we solve on the conflict that is between the overarching behavioural tendencies of the biological aggressive and the pleasure that is seeking the drive as well as the socialized internal control.
Cognitive Theory
When individual say the word learning they usually mean to think about the brain. The basic concept for the learning is essentially the viewpoint for the cognitive learning theory. The theory has been used for explaining the mental processes since they are influenced by both the intrinsic as well as the extrinsic factors that eventually would result to the learning of a person. The cognitive learning usually implies that the various processes in regards to the learning could be explained as well as analyzed using the mental processes initially (Hambleton & Zaal, 2013). It highlights that with an effective cognitive processes, the learning could be much easier as well as new information could be stored in the memory for a very long time. On the other perspective, the ineffective cognitive processes could result to the learning difficulties which could be seen anytime especially during the lifetime of the person (Kintsch & Vipond, 2014). In the individual environment interaction, the human beliefs, the ideas as well as the cognitive competencies are usually modified through the external elements such as the supportive parent, or perhaps the stressful environment. In the individual behavior interaction, the cognitive processes of individuals usually impact on their behavior. The performance such as the behavior could be modified on the way individuals think (Hambleton & Zaal, 2013). It is important to note that the learning is social and it is not isolated, as individuals learn while they are interacting with each other through the various shared activities as well as through the language, as they are discussing, share the knowledge as well as the problem solving especially during the tasks (Currie & Atkinson, 2015).  In the use of the cognitive theory, it advocate that when individuals changes their thoughts, they could change on their mood, decrease of the anxiety, or perhaps improving on their relationship.
Conclusion
Individual’s improvement of the memory is much easier than it sounds. Most individual think that memory as static as well as unchanging. In psychology, an individual can improve their memory using the various theories that have been researched by different authors. This essay has focussed on three theories, which could be employed by the learners in order to enhance on their memory. In this essay, will be classical psychology-dynamic theory, Social Learning theory and the cognitive theory. The use of these theories the psychologist have elaborated on how they could be used in order to motivate individuals so as to utilize these memory techniques to enable them in their learning at the CDU and beyond. The learners usually respond to the unfairness in their environment, they learn from the various consequences of their own actions and the repeat of their behavior which lead to the positive results. The learners are usually motivated in order to exert on the effort if they see their own actions, which could lead the outcomes, which could get them to the rewards that are desired. None of these theories, which have been presented, is complete on their own, but each of the theories provides individuals with the framework that could be analyzed, interpreted as well as managed behaviors while learning.
 
References
Crain, W. (2015). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. Psychology Press. 
Currie, S., & Atkinson, L. (2015). The application of psychological methods, models and theories to the understanding of health in the pregnancy and postpartum period: A review  of a BPS-funded seminar series. Health Psychology Update, 24(2), 56. 
Hambleton, R. K., & Zaal, J. N. (Eds.). (2013). Advances in educational and psychological testing: Theory and applications (Vol. 28). Springer Science & Business Media. 
Kintsch, W., & Vipond, D. (2014). Reading comprehension and readability in educational practice and psychological theory. Perspectives on memory research: essays in honor of Uppsala University’s 500th Anniversary, L. Nilsson, Editor. 1979, Lawrence Erlbaum    Associates, 329-65. 
Lenz, T. L. (2014). Developing lifestyle medicine tools from psychological theories. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 8(1), 28-30. 
Neimeyer, R. A. (Ed.). (2015). Death anxiety handbook: Research, instrumentation, and  application. Taylor & Francis. 
Siemens, G. (2014). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. 
Tyner, K. (2013). Development of mental representation: Theories and applications. Psychology   Press. 
Walton, G. M. (2014). The new science of wise psychological interventions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(1), 73-82. 

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