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Critical Review Of Hand Hygiene Knowledge

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Critical Review Of Hand Hygiene Knowledge

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Critical Review Of Hand Hygiene Knowledge

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Question:
Discuss about the Critical Review of Hand Hygiene Knowledge.
 
 
Answer:

Introduction :
Aim of the research 1
The research article by Sendlhofer et al. (2015) provides a clear statement of the aim of the research. The main aim of the study is to assess the hand hygiene knowledge, hand hygiene barrier and hand hygiene environmental factors of the health care professionals. This is mainly seen in the surgical and non-surgical departments in triennial university hospitals.
Moreover, the research question provides a clear background of the study that helps to know about the study.
PICO:
Does the hand hygiene behaviour in tertiary university hospital make difference in between the surgical and non-surgical departments?
P- Hospital obtained infection
I- Hand hygiene behaviour
C- Difference in between the surgical and non-surgical departments
O- Reduce infection
Style:
Methodology of the research
Researchers mainly choose the qualitative research for identifying the values, perception and feelings of the participants. This helps to identify the issues of the participants and develop a hypothesis to identify the problems of the hand hygiene.
 
Justification of research design
After the consideration of lack of the research to provide health care professionals knowledge about the hand hygiene on alternative method, research question for the study was designed.  Qualitative research methodology and survey was selected for the research study.   
Relevance of recruitment strategy
The method sample enhances the research quality by the explanation. This is based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The researcher chose 20 departments of the University Hospital, of which sixteen departments treat the inpatients with 135 beds in thirteen intensive care, as well as 1381 beds with 58 nursing wards.
Data collection method
The main purpose of the paper is to make people aware about the hand hygiene and provide satisfactory care. For the data collection, survey method is chosen. Mainly the health care professionals and family members of patients, who are admitted in intensive care unit are selected.
Level of data analysis
For classifying the data, thematic approach is taken into several themes. The survey method helped to make the themes. These approaches are useful to demonstrate the usefulness of hand hygiene.
Results:
Connection between researchers and participants
The attention of the researcher shows the reliability of a research article (Wearn, Bhoopatkar & Nakatsuji, 2015). It can be reflected by the survey method. At the time of data collection, the researcher needs to focus on the sample size.
Research style
For the research study, the APA research style is chosen that helped to gain knowledge. This is based on the two basic ideas. The APA research style helped to generalize the ideas and concepts of hand hygiene. This style is useful to explicit the data and enhance further study.
Statement of finding
The result analysis of entire sample group helped to make the five phases such as environmental audits, baseline online survey, HH campaign, and follow up online survey and alcohol based hand rub consumption. Hence, the findings are discussed in relation to the research questions with the consistence of previous findings on this topic (Chassin, Mayer & Nether, 2015).
 
Acknowledgement of the limitations
During the researcher, the researcher might face some limitations such as time and budget. The researcher needs to complete the research within the time period as well as with the limited budget.
Authors, journal ranking:
Authors
The article is relevant to the topic and the authors are authentic. As it is a scientific article, therefore the scopes is included.
Consideration of the study
The article is authentic and the researcher obeyed all the rules of the research study.
Aim of the research 2
In the article by Battistella, Berto and Bazzo (2017), the main aim of the paper is to explore the perceptions and the unconsciousness psychological methods. This is underlining hand washing behaviour of those nurses whom are working in the intensive care department. They need to implement the organisational innovations to improve the hand hygiene in the clinical practices.
PICO:
Do the professionals develop the habits of hand hygiene in the intensive care settings to reduce the infection?
P- Lack of clinical practice of hand hygiene behaviour
I- Hand hygiene behaviour
C- Difference between the hand hygiene and non hand hygiene behaviour
O- Reduce infection
Style: Methodology of the research
The researcher chose the qualitative research for identifying values, perception and feelings of the participants. This can help to identify the issues of the participants and develop a hypothesis to identify the problems of the hand hygiene.
Justification of research design
After the consideration of lack of the research to provide health care professionals knowledge about the hand hygiene on alternative method, research question for the study was designed.  Quantitative research methodology and interview and semantic analysis were selected for the research study. 
Relevance of recruitment strategy
The sampling method improves the research quality by the explaining research question. This is done based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the research. The researcher chose sixteen staff nurse, 53 nursing students and 5 general workers. The strategy helped the researcher to conduct the study and provide knowledge of hand hygiene as well.
Data collection method
The key purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions and the unconsciousness psychological methods. For the data collection, interview method is chosen. Mainly the nursing students, staffs and workers are selected.
Level of data analysis
To classify the gathered data, the researcher analysed the data on the basis of the research question. The interview method helped to make the approaches useful to demonstrate the usefulness of hand hygiene.
Results: Connection between researchers and participant
The researcher needs to pay attention towards the participants to show the reliability of the research article (Squires et al., 2014). The interview method can reflect it. At the time of data collection, the researcher needs to focus on the sample size.
 
Research style
For research study, the APA research style is chosen that helped to gain knowledge. This is based on the two basic ideas. The APA research style helped to generalize the ideas and concepts of hand hygiene. This style is useful to explicit the data and enhance further study.
Statement of finding
The analysis of the result of entire sample group helped in making approaches of the data analysis. Hence, the findings are discussed in relation to the research questions with the consistence of previous findings on this topic (Allegranzi et al., 2013). Moreover, the findings provide knowledge to the participants that will help them in future.
Acknowledgement of the limitations
During the researcher, the researcher might face some limitations such as time and budget. The researcher needs to complete the research within the time period as well as with the limited budget. The researcher designed the research methodology according to the time and budget to avoid the problems regarding limits.
Authors, journal ranking:
Authors
The article is relevant to the topic and the authors are authentic. As it is a scientific article, therefore the scopus is included. Moreover, the results that the researchers found are very helpful and provide knowledge to the future researchers to conduct the study. 
Consideration of the study
The article is authentic and the researcher obeyed all the rules of the research study.
Aim of the research 3
Cohen et al. (2016) stated in their article that the main aim of the paper is to focus on the pediatric department if the nurses maintain hand hygiene there. However, there are no such studies on the hand hygiene maintenance in pediatric department. In the pediatric department, there are various viral pathogens that can affect the new born, which needs to be reduced.
PICO:
Is hand hygiene frequency associated with the onset of outbreaks in pediatric long-term care?
P- Hospital acquired infection
I- Hand hygiene frequency
C- Difference between different care units 
O- Outbreak in pediatric long- term care
Style: Methodology of the research
The researcher had chosen the qualitative research to identify the values, perception and feelings of the participants. This may help to identify the issues of the participants and develop a hypothesis to identify the problems of the hand hygiene.
Justification of research design
After the consideration of lack of the research to provide health care professionals knowledge about the hand hygiene on alternative method, research question for the study was designed.  Quantitative research methodology and interview was selected for the research study.   
Relevance of recruitment strategy
The method sample enhances the research quality by the explanation. This is based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The researcher chose electronic devices to motor the system of hand hygiene frequency. 
Data collection method
The main purpose of the paper is to make people aware about the hand hygiene and provide satisfactory care. For the data collection, survey method is chosen. Mainly the health care professionals and family members of patients, who are admitted in intensive care unit, are selected.
Level of data analysis
To analyze the data, the researcher has made various research questions. These researcher questions help to classify the collected data. I such circumstance, the interview method helped the researcher to demonstrate the usefulness of hand hygiene.
Results: Connection between researchers and participants
The researcher needs to pay attention towards the participants to show the reliability of the research article (Smiddy, O’Connell & Creedon, 2015). The interview method can reflect it. At the time of data collection, the researcher needs to focus on the sample size.
Research style
For research study, the APA research style is chosen that helped to gain knowledge. This is based on the two basic ideas. The APA research style helped to generalise the ideas and concepts of hand hygiene. This style is useful to explicit the data and enhance further study.
Statement of finding
The analysis of the result of entire sample group helped in making approaches of the data analysis. Hence, the findings are discussed in relation to the research questions with the consistence of previous findings on this topic (Patch, 2016).
Authors, journal ranking:
The article is relevant to the topic and the authors are authentic. As it is a scientific article, therefore the scopus is included.
Consideration of the study
The article is authentic and the researcher obeyed all the rules of the research study
Aim of the research 4
Wiles, Roberts and Schmidt (2015) mentioned in their article that hand hygiene strategies decrease significantly health care that is associated with the infection. Multiple studies documented the result of hand hygiene. The research study selected the data of hand hygiene, which is overlooked and the infection control intervention was performed poorly. The median compliance rate is 40 %. Health care associated infections can claim more lives than AIDS, motor vehicle accidents and breast cancer annually. This can occur at the time of treatment receiving in the health care settings. This can affect 5 % of hospitalized service users.
PICO:
Do hand hygiene strategies reduce the infection in the health care settings from previous time?
P- Infection in health care setting
I- Hand hygiene strategies
C- Difference between strategies of previous and recent time
O- Control of infections
Methodology of the research
The researcher chose the qualitative research so that it can identify the values, perception and feelings of the participants. Qualitative research can help in identifying the issues of the participants and developing a hypothesis from it. This helps to identify the problems of the hand hygiene.
 
Justification of research design
After the consideration of lack of the research to provide health care professionals knowledge about the hand hygiene on alternative method, research question for the study was designed.  Quantitative research methodology, interview, and semantic analysis were selected for the research study.        
Relevance of recruitment strategy
The method sample explains the research quality. The recruitment strategy is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The researcher chose emergency department of 41 beds in between 276 beds of the acute care hospital. This is recognized in stroke, cardiac and trauma care.
Data collection method
The main purpose of the paper is to help people so that they can be aware about the hand hygiene and provide satisfactory care. For the data collection, the researcher did not choose any demographic method. Mainly the health care professionals and 95 emergency department room nurses in intensive care unit are selected.
Level of data analysis
To classify the gathered data, the researcher analyzed the data, which is based on the research question. The interview method helped to make the approaches useful to demonstrate the usefulness of hand hygiene.
Results: Connection between researchers and participants
The researcher needs to pay attention towards the participants to show the reliability of the research article (Rees, 2017). The interview method can reflect it. At the time of data collection, the researcher needs to focus on the sample size.
Research style
For research study, the APA research style is chosen that helped to gain knowledge. This is based on the two basic ideas. The APA research style helped to generalize the ideas and concepts of hand hygiene. This style is useful to explicit the data and enhance further study.
Statement of finding
The analysis of the result of entire sample group helped in making approaches of the data analysis. Hence, the findings are discussed in relation to the research questions with the consistence of previous findings on this topic (O’Donoghue et al., 2016).
Consideration of ethical issues
The researcher needs to follow several ethical guidelines that need to be considering before and at the time of investigation. Therefore, the researcher needs to take permission of the participants and research committee (Musuuza et al., 2016). Ii is necessary to be careful about the research purpose and perspectives of the participants.
Acknowledgement of the limitations
During the researcher, the researcher might face some limitations such as time and budget. The researcher needs to complete the research within the time period as well as with the limited budget.
Authors, journal ranking:
The article is relevant to the topic and the authors are authentic. As it is a scientific article, therefore the scopus is included.
Consideration of the study

Conclusion:
There are several ethical guidelines that need to be considering before and at the time of investigation. Therefore, the researcher needs to take permission of the participants, research committee. Ii is necessary to be careful about the research purpose and perspectives of the participants.
 
The researcher needs to follow several ethical guidelines that need to be considering before and at the time of investigation. Therefore, the researcher needs to take permission of the participants and research committee. Ii is necessary to be careful about the research purpose and perspectives of the participants.
 
Consideration of ethical issues
During the researcher, the researcher might face some limitations such as time and budget. The researcher needs to complete the research within the time period as well as with the limited budge

The researcher needs to follow several ethical guidelines that need to be considering before and at the time of investigation. Therefore, the researcher needs to take permission of the participants and research committee. Ii is necessary to be careful about the research purpose and perspectives of the participants.
Acknowledgement of the limitations
The article is authentic and the researcher obeyed all the rules of the research study.
 
References
Allegranzi, B., Gayet-Ageron, A., Damani, N., Bengaly, L., McLaws, M. L., Moro, M. L., … & Donaldson, L. (2013). Global implementation of WHO’s multimodal strategy for improvement of hand hygiene: a quasi-experimental study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 843-851.
Battistella, G., Berto, G., & Bazzo, S. (2017). Developing professional habits of hand hygiene in intensive care settings: An action-research intervention. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 38, 53-59.
Chassin, M. R., Mayer, C., & Nether, K. (2015). Improving hand hygiene at eight hospitals in the United States by targeting specific causes of noncompliance. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 41(1), 4-12.
Cohen, B., Murray, M., Jia, H., Jackson, O., Saiman, L., Neu, N., … & Larson, E. (2016). Is hand hygiene frequency associated with the onset of outbreaks in pediatric long-term care?. American journal of infection control, 44(12), 1492-1494.
Musuuza, J. S., Barker, A., Ngam, C., Vellardita, L., & Safdar, N. (2016). Assessment of fidelity in interventions to improve hand hygiene of healthcare workers: a systematic review. infection control & hospital epidemiology, 37(05), 567-575.
O’Donoghue, M., Ng, S. H., Suen, L. K., & Boost, M. (2016). A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 5(1), 36.
Patch, M. (2016, July). Innovative Approaches to Promote Nursing Hand Hygiene Success in an Emergency Department. In Sigma Theta Tau International’s 27th International Nursing Research Congress. STTI.
Rees, L. (2017). Exploring the Barriers and Levers to Hand Hygiene of Nursing and Medical Staff in Emergency Departments: A Mixed Methods Study.
Sendlhofer, G., Krause, R., Kober, B., Vander, K., Zierler, R., Brunner, G., Augustin, T., Stelzlm I., & Kamolz, L. P. (2015). Hand hygiene behavior in a tertiary university hospital: differences between surgical and non surgical departments. Safety in Health. 1(10), p. 00015-00025.
Smiddy, M. P., O’Connell, R., & Creedon, S. A. (2015). Systematic qualitative literature review of health care workers’ compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. American journal of infection control, 43(3), 269-274.
Squires, J. E., Linklater, S., Grimshaw, J. M., Graham, I. D., Sullivan, K., Bruce, N., … & Trickett, J. (2014). Understanding practice: factors that influence physician hand hygiene compliance. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35(12), 1511-1520.
Wearn, A., Bhoopatkar, H., & Nakatsuji, M. (2015). Evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene reminder signs on the use of antimicrobial hand gel in a clinical skills center. Journal of infection and public health, 8(5), 425-431.
Wiles, L. L., Roberts, C., & Schmidt, K. (2015). Keep it clean: a visual approach to reinforce hand hygiene compliance in the emergency department. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 41(2), 119-124.

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