Research questions and hypothesis
Central research question: How to Decrease Turnover and Increase Retention of Nurses?
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How does the introduction of better working conditions improve the turnover level and retention?
Does greater awareness of interpersonal skills positively influence turnover and retention of nurses?
Emphasis on social and bonus schemes, as well as effective strategies of human resource management, can decrease turnover and increase retention.
Can your idea be tested with any of the various types of experimental designs? Why or why not?
The ideas can be tested with the help of surveys made of questionnaires, as well as experiments consisting of introducing a new position into the hospital – a psychologist who will take care of nurses’ concerns and problems. The psychologist’s tactics will be premised on Nola Pender’s behavior model that assumes the importance of introducing a collaborating approach to communication among the nurses.
What is your design? Why have you chosen that design?
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A quantitative design has been chosen because intervention techniques and statistical analysis will contribute to defining deviations and findings that the experimental research design will introduce.
What is your target population? How would you identify and recruit participants?
The target population is a sample of 25 nurses from the general surgical floor of the hospital. This department has been chosen because it has the highest level of turnover and the lowest level of retention due to the extreme workload of duties and obligations imposed on the employees. The nurses will be proposed to take part in a survey composed of questionnaires and will be proposed to attend a psychologist who will try to discover whether psychological problems and interrelations influence their performance.
What data collection method might you use? How would that data help answer your research question(s)/hypotheses?
In order to find out the reasons and underpinnings of high turnover and low retention levels, the conducted survey will be subject to statistical analysis, which will be provided before psychological analysis and after it. Psychologists should find out the attitude of nurses’ to introducing rewards and benefits schemes and normal schedule, along with educational training programs. The hypothesis will be justified if the survey results after the sessions will be more positive and nurses will be more satisfied with the professional environment.
How consistent are these data collection methods with methods used in existing research on your topic? Why did you choose these methods? What are the alternatives?
An extensive overview of related research has shown that quantitative research design prevails while investigating the research topic under analysis. In particular, Duffield et al. (2011) have presented their survey to define how front-line managers influence the job satisfaction level among the employees. The scholars have resorted to a survey that aims to define how such aspects as job satisfaction and intention to leave are correlated. Using a quantitative method design, the research has found that a good nurse leader has a potent impact on high turnover and low retention levels within a hospital. Other researchers have also been based on experimental designs (Jones & Gates, 2007; Kooker & Kamikawa, 2011; Wieck, Dols, & Landrum, 2010).
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How would you ensure the quality and reliability of the data?
Consistency and reliability of the quantitative data received from surveys can be ensured through test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Test-retest reliability can measure the extent to which obtained results deviate from the accepted levels. For instance, the result will help define whether the variation in evaluations of a single person under similar conditions is smaller or higher.
How might you analyze the data?
The data analysis will be based on the statistical results obtained from pre-test and post-test procedures. Using a comparative approach is vital for defining which of the established variables have changed and which ones remain at the same level.
What are the target audiences for your findings?
The target audience is nurse managers and human resource managers who should take into account the results to improve the retention culture in their hospitals.
Analysis of Existing Research Design With Regard to the Research Question
Because mixed-method research implies a two-dimensional approach to answering research questions, most current studies take advantage of this method to present a consistent and extensive overview of a specific problem. Using quantitative and qualitative approaches both in sequences or simultaneously contributes to answering a hypothesis and aligning the research to a much broader context in science. Specifically, the analysis of quantitative data provides the researchers with a chance to introduce intervention to the chosen sample and track all possible changes that occurred once the intervention has been presented. In its turn, qualitative methods allow a researcher to draw conclusions based on the observational studies conducted. They also create a sufficient basis for building a hypothesis.
The rationale for a Chosen Research Approach
Analysis of retention culture is often confined to such aspects as organizational environment, cultural diversity, communication, and human resource management. All these spheres are vital for enhancing the quality of patient treatment and increasing collaborative techniques among the members of the health care staff. In order to define the reasons for the reluctance of nurses to work in a specific environment, some personal and external factors should be analyzed. Each dimension is concerned with pertinent methods and, therefore, a mixed-method approach is the most reliable method to based my research on.
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Because the research question under analysis seeks to define how specific variables influence turnover and retention in a hospital a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches can best meet the problem. Capturing different aspects and criteria, surveys and interviews combined can provide a wider insight into the research problem and define how different attitudes and working environments can improve the retention culture and make nurses stay at the position for longer periods of time. Second, the use of experimental and qualitative analysis provides more sources for data collection because it can significantly contribute to the validity and reliability of the research. Hence, numerical data and text results can complement qualitative information received from the interviews and observational studies. In such a manner, research can also conduct a synthesis of the information to draw some new findings and define how these findings can be useful for the given research.
The issue of cultural diversity should be treated with greater concerns when it comes to job satisfaction and the working environment. People should take into consideration the problem of equality in the United States and take care of the immigrants coming to America. A huge diversity existing in the country has a potent impact on social and cultural welfare and, therefore, the problem of nurse turnover and retention should be considered with greater depth and diligence. People should treat others as they want to be treated themselves. Respect for cultural, religious, and social backgrounds is indispensable to creating a healthy environment within an employed setting. Nurse managers, therefore, should give much more attention to collaborative techniques and encourage nurses to share their experience and expand their professional knowledge. Treating equally each member of the hospital can also contribute to the respectable image of the organization. It will also promote the implementation of international standards of human resource management strategies. Finally, it will provide a fresh insight into the development of new training programs that would enhance the safety and quality of patient treatment and delivery of services.
Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2001). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Duffield, C., Roche, M., Blay, N., & Stasa, H. (2011). Nursing unit managers, staff retention and the work environment. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 20(1/2), 23-33.
Jones, C., & Gates, M. (2007). The costs and benefits of nurse turnover: a business case for nurse retention. Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 12(3), 1.
Kooker, B., & Kamikawa, C. (2011). Successful strategies to improve RN retention and patient outcomes in a large medical centre in Hawaii. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 20(1/2), 34-39.
Wieck, K., Dols, J., & Landrum, P. (2010). Retention priorities for the intergenerational nurse workforce. Nursing Forum, 45(1), 7-17.