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Paracetamol

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Paracetamol

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Question:
Write an essay on Paracetamol.
 
 
Answer:

Introduction:
Paracetamol which is also referred to as acetaminophen is a pain reliever and reducer of fever. Paracetamol is also an effective medication for health problems like a headache, arthritis, colds, muscle aches, swelling of joints, etc. People with a regular addiction of alcohols cannot consume paracetamol as it can cause liver cirrhosis (Berg et al., 2012). Paracetamol is composed with the combination of medicines such as acetaminophen or APAP. These types of medicines also produce side effects on continuous consumption. The side effects include such as low fever, loss of appetite including dark colored stools, dark urine, stomach pain, swelling of the face, allergic reactions, breathing problems, etc. Paracetamol is also as an efficient medication for the patients suffering from Down syndrome. The paracetamol combines with glutathione is much preferable for these patients. This is because the patients suffering from Down syndrome are deficient in the production of Glutathione due extra chromosomes over expression of the SOD-1 gene. As the Glutathione is an important antioxidant, it helps the free radicals to combine with the oxidative stress with the Down syndrome. Whereas the acetaminophen helps in deplete the glutathione levels in the liver, which is very important for the patient suffering from down syndromes. This is the place where it is produced and stored in the body. Due to this reason it causes a bad situation, and more oxidative damage occurs in the patient, therefore, causing liver failure. This is the reason why the paracetamol which is medicated to the patients with Down syndrome are combined with glutathione so that the situation is solved (Stahl et al., 2015).   
Discussion:
The case study 3 is about a child Robert Small, who is of 5 years and a patient suffering from the trisomy 21 disease. He is a patient of 20 kgs’ weight. The trisomy 21 is a Down syndrome disorder generally due to alteration in the genetic conditions. The trisomy 21 is a specific condition where the extra chromosome, which is the chromosome 21, production, starts in the development of the egg or the sperm. At the time when the egg and the sperm combine for the formation of the fertilized egg, three chromosomes combine instead of two chromosomes (as in normal cases). According to the cell division, the extra chromosome gets repeated in each cell produces in the cell division. Therefore, the baby suffers from Down syndrome disorder. The patient, Robert Small also has a difficulty in speaking, and other intellectual difficulties. The other symptoms which are included in his health fever of 38.5, irritable attitude, lethargic, etc. The child was provided with paracetamol. The drug protocol for administering paracetamol in case of children involves the ways, such as: oral dose, intravenous, rectal suppositories, etc. The dosage which is prescribed by the doctor is 300 mg of paracetamol in every 4 hours, as the child was slightly obsessed. As the child is a patient of Down syndrome disorder, therefore, he should be avoided with the acetaminophen type of medicines. If the patient has to take the medicine must be provided with the short period or with the high amount of glutathione, so that it causes no oxidative damage to the body (Valkenburg et al., 2015).
A normal child of the age 4years to 6 years is administered with paracetamol of approximately about 240 mg for every 4 hours interval. But in this case, as the child is a patient of trisomy 21, the patient should be supplied with the limited amount of paracetamol or with the combination of a high amount of glutathione. As the pediatrician has prescribes with 300 mg which is high for the child. The paracetamol was prescribed to Robert for the treatment of the fever, which should be processed with strict notice, that as soon as the child gets relief from fever, the paracetamol should be stopped (Richards, 2014). This is because the child with trisomy 21 may undergo sever health problems and may lead to heart attacks and breathing problems for continuous consumption of the drug. As the patient has no allergic report, therefore, it is safe to give him any combinations of a drug provided the fact that his body does not react for this Down syndrome disorder, due to oxidative damage. For the utilization of small amount of the drug, the way of drug application should be improvised. As a result, as paracetamol is best absorbed when applied intravenously. Therefore, Robert is applied with paracetamol intravenously for a better result in a few drugs (Allegaert et al., 2013).
Paracetamol is consisting of a low plasma protein of 10% to 25%; as a result, the distribution throughout the body is wide. Paracetamol is also a water soluble compound. Therefore, the distribution rate in rapid, and the concentration rate ranges to 10 mg per liter to 15 mg per liter (Mohammed et al., 2014). This is only possible when the child is subjected to the drug intravenously. If the administered dose is more than 90%, then it is eliminated through urine. According to the blood culture report, full blood count, the doctor referred the child with antibiotics which are suitable for the health of the child. Some of the commercial paracetamol includes Tylenol, Theraflu, Panadol, Pamprin, etc.  Emergency stoppage of the drug should be done experiencing the symptoms such as skin rash, diarrhea, swelling, respiratory problems, etc. (Narayan et al., 2015).
Conclusion:
Therefore, it can be concluded that patients suffering from Down syndrome disorders must be provided with less amount of Tylenol or drugs with the combination of acetaminophen, because the acetaminophen decays the glutathione which is the main oxidative support of the body. After that, if the patient has to provide with the drug must be provided with the combination of high glutathione concentrations. The input of the respective drug depends on the physical condition, the weight and the height of the patient; it also includes the age of the patient. This is because children of variable ages are to provide with the definite amount of the drug and the adults of various ages are to be provided with the higher concentration of the drug. Medication is a vital issue for the patients with or without physical disabilities. Therefore, it to be maintained by the physicians and in another hand, the parent awareness is also another issue which is required to guide the situation with.
 
References:
Allegaert, K., Anderson, B., Simons, S., & Van Overmeire, B. (2013). Paracetamol to induce ductus arteriosus closure: is it valid?. Archives of disease in childhood, 98(6), 462-466.
Berg, P., Becker, T., Martian, A., Danielle, P. K., & Wingen, J. (2012). Motor control outcomes following Nintendo Wii use by a child with Down syndrome. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(1), 78-84.
Mohammed, B. S., Cameron, G. A., Helms, P. J., & McLay, J. S. (2014). Pharmacokinetics of Single Dose Intravenous Paracetamol in Children. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences, 3(2), 18-23.
Narayan, H., Thomas, S. H., Eddleston, M., Dear, J. W., Sandilands, E., & Nicholas Bateman, D. (2015). Disproportionate effect on child admissions of the change in Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency guidance for management of paracetamol poisoning: an analysis of hospital admissions for paracetamol overdose in England and Scotland. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 80(6), 1458-1463.
Richards, A. (2014). Genes and environment. Essential Pathophysiology For Nursing And Healthcare Students, 36.
Stahl, S. H., Yates, J. W., Nicholls, A. W., Kenna, J. G., Coen, M., Ortega, F., … & Wilson, I. D. (2015). Systems toxicology: modelling biomarkers of glutathione homeostasis and paracetamol metabolism. Drug Discovery Today: Technologies, 15, 9-14.
Valkenburg, A. J., de Leeuw, T. G., van Dijk, M., & Tibboel, D. (2015). Pain in Intellectually Disabled Children: Towards Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy?. Pediatric Drugs, 17(5), 339-348.
Viberg, H., Eriksson, P., Gordh, T., & Fredriksson, A. (2014). Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice. toxicological sciences, 138(1), 139-147.

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