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Predictors Academic Achievement Students

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Predictors Academic Achievement Students

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Discuss About The Predictors Academic Achievement Students.


Academics are regarded as an area that requires students to be highly attentive to the tasks and goals that are provided to them in their academic tenure. Every student is required to have a certain amount of confidence in order to make sure that they pass through the hurdles that are the academics puts forward to them. The idea of academic self efficacy is known as the confident that a student holds in pursuing a certain academic goal or target (Maddux, 2016). The self efficacy is actually is known as the belief of a student in their individual capability of making sure that a certain grade or score is achieved in the academics that is being pursued. The students are required to have a certain amount of self confidence regarding their academics so that they can achieve and set goals for their growth in the sector (Honicke & Broadbent, 2016). Academics is such a part in an individual’s life that leads to building the base for the future. A person who excels in the academics is assured to achieve a certain standard in life due to the qualification that is achieved by the person. Academic self efficacy is related to the mental perception of an individual regarding the abilities and qualities of the self. Higher level of academic self efficacy often assures a person that the academic goals are met and the best of the results are achieved in the subject. It is to ne noted that academic self efficacy is largely based on the subject and is a situational aspect. A student can be highly efficient in a subject and hence the level of self efficacy can be high whereas the same person can have low level of self efficacy because of a different subject and module that is difficult for that particular person. The idea of academic self efficacy is completely unrelated to the idea of self actualization or self esteem of a person as they are supposed to be more generalized personality trait of a person (Lester, Inman & Bishop, 2014). High levels of self efficacy enable a student to be more confident in dealing with a module and improve the overall approach of a student. Lower levels suggest that the individual can be succumbed to the pressure of the academics and issues of stress and frustration can ensue. The ability of an individual to motivate the self and make sure that a positive approach is kept towards the goals of the project is essential in order to make sure that a higher level of academic self efficacy is achieved (Copriady, 2014). An individual can alter and plan the course of action with a higher level of self efficacy so that the goals and targets are achieved, a certain method and mindset is required by a student to achieve the excellence in the field of academics. Academic outcomes expectation is the believe that certain behavior from the  student will lead to achievement of a certain target in the academics whereas academic efficacy expectation is known as a student’s perception  regarding the performance of the self in the expected academic field (Martin et al., 2013).
Test anxiety
Academics are a sector that requires constant evaluation of the performance of the students. The pupils who are evaluated are the ones who undergo a lot of stress in the entire process in order to achieve excellence in the field of academics. Every individual has experienced the feeling of stress, tension and nervousness at the time of giving a test in the academic career. The feeling is common but is seen that there are people who are extremely swallowed by the pressure that is exerted upon them. The test anxiety is known as the level of anxiety that is experienced by the students in the time of giving a test or the moments before a test (Tobias, 2013). The anxiety levels vary from person to person and it is highly dependent on the kind of mental capability of the individual involved in the process. It is noted that too much of test anxiety often leads to the degradation of the performance levels of the students. The students are not able to perform as per their capabilities due to the excess stress that they feel constantly before or during the time of the examination. The level of stress leads to the individuals losing the capacity to retain the information that they have read for the examination (Pradhan, Mendinca, & Kar, 2014). The capacity for retaining the memory reduces and this leads to the students forgetting the things which they have learned for their exams. Test anxiety leads to the individuals losing their performance level due to the various emotional and cognitive constraints that appear for them. The emotional constraints involves the feelings of fear, anger, disappointment and helplessness for the students and such constraints pull back their performance levels in the test and as a result their grades face a dip. The cognitive constrains such as comparison of the self with the others, demoralizing self talk and going blank at the time of the test do heavily impact the kind of results that are achieved by the pupils in the test (Talanquer, 2013). The test anxiety is a psychological trait that needs to be mentored in order to reduce the stress that has been impending on the students. The test anxiety has to be reduced by a careful reflection of the self and a useful evaluation of the qualities of the self in contrast to the situation that is at hand. The positivity in the psychology has to be imbibed so that the performances of the students are not pulled back by the test anxiety that they are face with in the academics sector. The idea of self efficacy is essential in order to get rid of the test anxiety as it may lead to the person to being more confident about the test and such confidence shall improve the quality of performance in a test (Schwarzer, 2014). The thought process should be challenged and the anxious thoughts should be dealt with in a positive manner so that the challenge can provide motivation and reduce the impacts of test anxiety.
Procrastination of Students
The students have an attitude of keeping things to the last moment and this has been a huge problem for them as it many a times pulls them back in their ultimate productivity. The students show a tendency of leniency towards their work and keep things to be done at the last moment (Ferrari & Díaz-Morales, 2014). These laid back attitudes are known as the procrastination of students. The temptations that surround students have to be dealt with carefully so that it does not impact their performance in the academic section.  The idea of having a casual chat with a friend in the break may lead to the break being elongated to an hour and a complete wastage of the time. The effect of procrastination is directly on the academic results and such a practice should be avoided in order to get the best of the performances (Azar, 2013). The concept of work and play should be separated so that equal attention is given to both and they do not overlap each other (Gilley et al., 2015). The performance of the individual is highly dependent on the kind of motivation that is expected to be in a student at the university. Students must get rid of the temptations and it must be made sure that the best of the action is delivered in the field of academics as it will lead to a prospective and bright future for them. Research suggests that with the rise of the social media and the popularity of the internet, the students have enough areas to divert their attention. The constant scrolling of the social media feed leads to the students delaying much important tasks that are to be done by them (Yeboah & Ewur, 2014). The balance between work and personal life has to be maintained and hence it is to be made sure that they are sufficiently giving time to the required aspects of life rather than just having fun. The idea of entertainment and enjoyment of the life has been regarded of utmost importance by the students and for this they prefer delaying academic work and involving in the entertainment and fun things of life. It is suggested that the student make a proper plan of action that can be implemented so that the best of the results are assured. In order to concentrate it is essential that an environment has to be created that influences the students to study hard and achieve the desired results. There are serious impacts of procrastination and it is seen that the students who indulge in the practice often face stress and depression as they are not able to cope with the pressure at the last moment (Balkis, 2013). The students involved in the practice often breakdown and their lack of dedication to the academics leads to them getting lower grades. Procrastination is a combination of various issues such as motivation, lack of interest and dearth in the understanding of a topic or subject. Constant procrastination often leads to a cycle of low grades that further de-motivates a student and can lead the pupil to tremendous level of depression and anxiety (Wäschle et al., 2014).
Literature review
Motivation is one of the biggest factors that drive the performance of an individual in any field. A person who is motivated enough is sure to achieve the targets and reach the goals of the target section (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013). The environment that a person is in adds to the ways in which a person is motivated in the pursuance of the targets and goals. In terms of academics it is extremely essential for an individual to be constantly motivated so that the goals and targets are achieved. Pupils often face certain situation in schools and home that leads them to believing that they cannot succeed at a given subject or task. Such feelings in the person should be dealt away by constant motivation. The primary source of motivation for a person is the immediate surroundings of the person. The most active source of energy for a person is the attitude that the people hold around them. The motivation of has to be constant and hence it is essential that a person is in the right circle of acquaintances. The response from the society greatly determines the mindset of a person and the entire performance is dependent on it (Rosenberg, 2015). The students are often found de-motivated by the family and society id they fail to deliver on a particular subject. Another important aspect of motivation is self-motivation. This kind of motivation comes from within and is the most important kind of motivation that is at work for a person to excel in the respective field. There can be determinants that constantly try to pull down the people and de-motivate them but for a person who is self-motivated it is seen that they excel on their own and achieve their goals in life (Schwarzer, 2013). It is seen that the people who are working to make themselves motivated are successful in doing so as they do not get easily effected by people who want to bring them down in life. The students too need to focus on this aspect of motivation in order to achieve self efficacy and lower rates of test anxiety. The real life practices do make up a lot for what is achieved in life and what is not. The impact that the people themselves have making sure that they are at par with the academic expectations are high.  A person must make sure that the external influences are negated and it is the self motivation that will fuel the person to make sure that the goal is achieved.
It is often seen that the students of universities suffer from issues of stress, anxiety and depression. These are mental issues that take place in a person due to the problem that the individual may have in attitude and perception about the world. These are the concepts that are mostly self-inflicted and needs to be corrected by the self. A student is often subject to anxiety when their remains lag on their part in the effort that is to be given for their academics. The reluctance that is shown by the students often leads to them feeling over anxious in the last moments and the moments before examination (Wery & Thomson, 2013). These can turn into psychological issues and hence can impact the overall system of the person in a way that is improbable. The students have an attitude to procrastinate and such an attitude always leads them to trouble in their academic career. Such trouble in the academic career leads to problems of stress and anxiety for them. In the area of academics, students are assigned with multiple duties and tasks and they are required to work on them in order to achieve growth in their life and success in the academics. Anxiety can be reduced if the student is more serious about the academics and a better work and play balance is achieved. It is essential that the students have a proper action plan so that the best of the both worlds is achieved in life (Schön, 2017).
epression is seen as a growing disorder among the students and the main cause is their ineffectiveness in achieving academic results. When the students fail to achieve to required grades it is seen that it hampers them socially. They are subjected to foul treatment by their parents and the society. This leads them to feel that they are below the accepted standards and they fall into depression (Sharma & Wavare, 2013). The social exclusion can have serious impact on the psyche of the people as they are subjected to complete isolation from the people around them. Depression is serious mental ailment and it is gaining fast momentum around the world, the precursors that lead a person to the various issues of depression should be well dealt with so that the recipients do not feel out-casted. The feeling of loneliness and anxiety can lead a student to depression, it is seen that a person has to be isolated from some aspects of the society or needs to be under extreme stress in order to be depressed (Gilbert, 2016). Students around the world have a constant trend of delaying their work and indulging into other activities, such a practice leads them to handling major pressure in the last moment and their grades fall which leads them to the feeling of being depressed. The stress leads them to depression and it makes their situation worst when the grades do not match the expectations.   
The students at the universities often have serious issues with their lifestyles. The way the people deal with themselves is often too neglected in nature and this leads to many disorders among them which they do not recognize at the first place (Wald et al., 2014). Such disorders often lead to their behavioral changes. The students do not maintain a healthy eating or sleeping habit, this leads to their lack of concentration and makes them mentally unable to achieve their academic targets. The students stay up late at night for no such productive reason and hence this lead to their lack of sleep. The schedule of life that the students have is extremely irregular and their habit of alcoholism and drugs has lead to further degrading their mental ability to perform to the growing challenges of the academics. Such lack of sleep further makes sure that the entire lifestyle is disturbed and the calmness of the mind is reduced to zero. The ability of the mind to concentrate is reduced and the lack of sleep makes it unable to work to its highest potential (Hershner & Chervin, 2014). The sleeping pattern makes the person irritated and lack of effort on their part is seen for completing a work or achieving a target. The self motivation is completely low and hence it is seen that the students keep neglecting their academic duties and participate in activities that are idle and non-productive. The eating habit of an individual paves way for the mind to work in a way that would lead them to better results. The effects of a bad eating has many implications and it is seen that the people feel less connected to the world around them and a constant feeling of weakness engulfs them which prevents them engaging into any productive task (Deliens et al., 2014). The neglecting attitude towards eating can also lead to many serious issues such as deficiency in vitamins and many deadly diseases can occur over a period of time such as ulcer in the stomach or even worst, anorexia. It has to be ensured that the food and sleep cycle of a person is consistent and proper care is taken of them. The students must realize that lifestyle has an immense effect on their overall academic performance. Every aspect of the life and the way it is lived is connected to the kind of performance one is delivering at the needed points. The performance can be assured if the people start understanding there is no shortcut to achieve excellence in any field and hard work is the key to everything.
Gap of literature
It is seen from the literature review above that there have been many works in relation to the kind issues that lead to the low grades or performance degradation of the students. The idea of stress, depression, lifestyle and anxiety have been studied by various researchers but the combined effect that such issues can have on the students is not yet much researched or reviewed. The actual reasons for a dip in the performance of the student in universities and their poor results have not been evaluated completely keeping in mind all the above mentioned issues. There is a scope to research about the main reasons that lead to the degradation of performance of a student in the academic sphere. The lifestyle of the students does impact their performance and adds to the points that have been discussed in the introduction of the paper. There can be more elaborate researches on the aspect of stress, anxiety and lifestyle all combined and leading to loss academic excellence. The students these days are faced with multiple issues that divert their attention and decrease their dedication towards academics. Such issues have not been sufficiently researched combined with stress, anxiety and lifestyle to produce a study that showcases the extreme causes of lack of self efficacy, test anxiety and procrastination of the students. The dip in the performance is has to attributed with the entire social aspect that a student is faced with and then only the the reasons can be clearly explained and understood. The dedication level of students are seen dropping down and there has been very few such studies that go on to show the reasons that have lead to the dip in the level of interest of the pupils. Psychological, emotional and physical constraints are all needed to be studied in order to understand the issues that the students are faced with in their academic sphere. The academic sphere has become more challenging in the recent times and this has lead to the students being exhausted or losing interest from the academic proceedings that are provided to them.
Significance of the study
It is seen that students around the world are stressed with the academics and the reasons is being cited as the excess pressure that has been put on them. However, it is necessary to understand that there are various other issues that lead to such situations to be created. The need for the study is to understand such issues that are impacting the academic performance of the students and leading to excess stress on them. While some of the pressure and stress can be due to the curriculum, there are other self inflicted issues that are leading to such a situation for the students. The students are needed to be evaluated and there are needed to be understood in the greater light so that a possible solution can be achieved. Stress and anxiety are needed to be dealt with so that the performances of the students do not dip. A way has to be etched out so that the stress and anxiety is effectively dealt with; a therapy has to be developed after the research that will enable the students to perform efficiently. The coping mechanism of the students has to be sought out by taking in consideration the results of the research. The study needs to be conducted so that the academic results are improved and the practices of self efficacy and low anxiety are induced into them. The background work on the topic of anxiety and stress have been done but in the recent light of the changes that have been taking place due to the stress and anxiety of the college students has not been addressed to a great extent. The emotional and mental issues of the students have to be understood in order to get a clear idea of the stress and anxiety they are facing. The students have a different approach towards their academics in this modern day and the significance of the study remains in understanding the shift in the attitude of the people. 
Research Objectives

To Evaluate the impact of low self efficiency among academic students
To evaluate the impact of test anxiety among academic students
To estimate the degree of negative impact that is caused on the mental and Physical health of academic students due to exam stress and low self efficiency.
To recommend strategies to academic student for dealing with issues related to exam stress and low self confidence.

Research Hypothesis

Exam stress and low self confidence has negative impact on the mental health of academic students.
The degree of negative impact caused due to exam stress and low self confidence can be evaluated with the help of student counseling sessions
Effective stress management strategies can help to deal with high level of negative impact on the mental health of students.

Research philosophy
The two types of research philosophy include positivism and interpretivism. Theory of positivism philosophy deals with real fact and truths that are related to that of the research topics. This type of philosophy is also effective in making logical conclusion from the collected data. There is also interpretivism philosophy, which analyses with the perception of people related to research topic (Saunders et al., 2015). This philosophy will be applied for the given research work, which will help the investigators to understand the perception of academic student about the impact of high exam stress and low self confidence.
Research Approach
The deductive approach is popularly used in all major research works, which emphasizes upon obtaining relevant and updated information about the research topic. This research approach can also help the investigators to frame new hypothesis (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016).
The given research work related to stress management and low self confidence among student can be executed by using inductive approach. In this kind of method, the researchers applies new hypothesis in the form of stress management techniques in order to deal with negative consequences the same upon the mental health of students.
Research Design
The given research for the investigators will implement the descriptive form of Research Design. This will help them to frame effective questionnaires for the data collection process. Nevertheless, the major negative aspect of descriptive Research Design is due to the huge amount of time required for the process of Data Collection. The exploratory Research Design can also be used in order to evaluate the psychological impact of the society upon the research topic of exam related stress (Nardi, 2018).
Research Strategy
The strategy of the research is chosen depending upon the exact research objectives and chosen hypothesis. The major type of strategy that is used in all major quantitative and qualitative research work includes survey and interview. This is believed to be an ideal form of Data Collection, where the investigators get direct opportunity to interact with the sample size of the research work. For the given research work, the investigators will directly interact with the academic students and educators in the form of survey and interview, which will help them to get idea about the current condition of the society and their perception about exam stress anxiety and lower levels of self confidence.
Data Collection Process
There are two types of data collection process that generally used for all research work. In primary form of Data Collection, information is directly collected from the sample size. For this process the research strategy of interview and survey are implemented (Palinkas et al., 2015).
In the current research work the investigators will conduct interview and survey of 50 students and 10 educators, who have more than 5yrs of experience. It is however essential to frame effective questionnaire for the process of Data Collection, which is done according to the research objective and hypothesis.
In the secondary form of data collection, information on gathered from previously conducted research work of the relevant topic. Popular databases will be used as the major source of Data Collection in the given technique.
Sampling Methods  
In case of probability, sampling the researcher selects the respondents randomly but it should be seen that the entire population has been represented by the selected sample (Palinkas et al., 2015). There is also the case of non probability sampling method, where the source of data and sample are predetermined and fixed. The main positive aspects of the random sampling methods are due to the fact that there are no forms of biases that are being implemented in the selection of the sample size.
The students and the educators for the given research work will be randomly chosen. This will enable them to collect data from wide groups of students.
Ethical Issues   
As the research work is dealing with human subject, it is highly essential for the investigators to follow the ethical protocol. This will include not enforcing any survey or interview participants to provide any personal information. Identity of the participants also needs to be classified in order to protect their personal information.
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It is a matter of great pride for me that I am the best psychologist and a counselor in my town. To be able to access a psychologist cum counselor who has expertise and experience like me, one needs to travel 30 miles from the town. So, I am very respectable by people in the town. I get invitations to join as the chief guest for almost every humanitarian and social work related events that take place within the town I live….
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The choice of lifestyle and the environment in which a person dwells play a vital role in determination of one’s mental well being and happiness as well.  How and where we live has a great impact on the same.  However the association of city structure to physical health is finally getting the desired kind of attention.  The outline of the society and the neighbourhood impacts the health of a pe…

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The teratogen affects behavior problems among the offspring (Loomans et al., 2012). Prenatal and parental exposure of alcohol is found to generate Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children (Ware et al., 2012). ADHD causes over activity, impulsivity and are unable to sustain attention under the stereotypic school settings (Getahun et al., 2013). It also causes poor self-esteemed, mood swings, dysthymia and…

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Course Code: PSYCH1001
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Basically, severe deprivation points to acute, compounded or persistent economic hardship. Predominantly, acute economic hardship is characterized by living below the poverty life meaning there’s low supply of critical resources whereas compounded hardship implies disadvantages be they psychological, materially or socially. Mainly, persistent economic hardship implies a continuous disadvantageous condition. Persisten…

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Exercise 1
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In this case, it is clear that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia, which is a type of Anxiety Disorder.
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