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PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services

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PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services

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Course Code: PSY111
University: Charles Sturt University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Questions
Exercise 1: Psychological Disorders and Treatments
Task 1 
Case Study – Heather 
Heather, a 20 year-old University student, has an intense fear of speaking to people she does not know very well. During her first and second years, she chose subjects with large lectures, where she could hide in the back of the lecture theatre and not speak to other students or participate in class discussions. Heather received high marks in all of her subjects. In her third year, Heather is now required to attend subjects of smaller class sizes in which class participation and small group work is required. She is sure that she will do something embarrassing, such as vomit, and others will judge her negatively. Because of these fears, Heather has trouble sleeping at night and is considering dropping out of University.
Task 2
Identify the psychological disorder (be specific e.g. Social Anxiety Disorder not just Anxiety) and provide a rationale on how you identified this disorder, including key symptoms.
Task 3 
Based on your diagnosis of the disorder in TASK 2 (above), choose a combination of two therapies that you believe would be the most effective for treating the disorder identified in the case study. In your response, you should provide a justification for why these two therapeutic approaches would be most effective based on evidence from the literature, suitability of techniques used by each of these therapeutic approaches, and how the two (2) therapeutic approaches work together to treat the disorder  
List of therapeutic approaches

Psychodynamicpsychotherapy
Psychoanalysis
Behaviouraltherapy
Cognitive therapy(either REBT or Beck’s cognitive therapy)
CognitiveBehavioural Therapy
Acceptanceand Commitment Therapy
Gestalttherapy
Client-centredtherapy
Grouptherapy
Pharmacotherapy
Electroconvulsivetherapy

Exercise 2: Social psychology (social influence, attitude change, & persuasion)
Task 1
Choose an image of an advertisement from Google images (or similar image search engine e.g. Bing images).
Provide a hyperlink to the image in your assignment (and be sure to check that the link works before submitting your assignment). 
Task 2
Discuss how this advertisement has been designed to change people’s attitudes and behaviours. In your response, you should provide examples from the advertisement that demonstrate principles of social influence, persuasion, and attitude change.
Task 3
Based on your readings and knowledge of attitude and behavioural change, how effective do you think that this advertisement would be in changing people’s attitudes and behaviours and why?
Exercise 3: Motivation
The following exercise requires you to demonstrate your knowledge of the different theoretical perspectives on motivation.
Task 1
Using two of the five perspectives on motivation (psychodynamic, behaviourist, cognitive, humanistic and evolutionary), give 2 explanations of what might motivate someone’s decision to enrol in a university course. 
Task 2
Read the article at the following link (and provided as an additional PDF) by Ryan and Deci on intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/SDT/documents/2000_RyanDeci_SDT.pdf
Ryan and Deci (2000) state that “intrinsic motivation…refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, and extrinsic motivation. refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome”.
Utilising Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as outlined in the article, assuming that you already have interest in your chosen field of study, what could your lecturers do to enhance your (a) autonomy (b) competence and (c) relatedness?  
Task 3
Health and other professionals are often faced with a range of challenges when it comes to clients complying with their recommended health behaviour changes or other requirements. It is important to understand the individual’s motivation when assessing a client’s likelihood of adhering to treatment advice, and also compliance failures (not adhering to recommendations).
For this exercise:

Based on your chosen area of study, give a brief (one or two sentence) example of arecommendation that would require a client to change their behaviour (e.g. not following the clinician’s recommendation to attend regular appointments, not adhering to the treatment plan set out by clinician, not adhering to parole or bail conditions, not completing homework tasks, not making a bushfire emergency plan, etc.). 

 Evaluate why the client/patient/individual may not comply with your recommendation. In yourresponse you should:

Choose a theory of motivation that best explains why a patient may not comply with yourclinical  Include in-text citations to support your answer.
Provide an example of how this theory of motivation could inform how you approach yourclinical recommendations with this patient in the future.

Answer 
Exercise 1
Task 1
In this case, it is clear that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia, which is a type of Anxiety Disorder.
Task 2
Social Phobia is commonly known as Social Anxiety Disorder. This disorder involves fear of certain situations that includes situations that are unfamiliar to them or any situation where an individual have the fear of being evaluated or watched by the external world. These circumstances may be so frightful for the individual that they can avoid those situations and stop socializing. The main factor underlying social phobia is the fear of being scrutinized, judged, evaluated and embarrassed in public.
According to Diagnostic Statistic Manual of Mental Disorder, fifth edition (DSM V), the following are the total diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder (Heimberg et al. 2014).

Fear or anxiety observed in social situation, to be judged by the external world. Social situations can include conversation with strangers and going out for a public event.
Feeling rejected by the external environment.
The exposure to social situations triggers anxiety.
The patient tends to avoid social situations.
The fear and anxiety is out of proportion.
The avoidance of social situations is persistent for more than six months.
The impairment of personal and professional life is due to distress of mind.
The anxiety or distress is due to any substance abuse.
The distress and fear is not due to any other mental disorder.

From the case study, it can be found out that Heather who is a 20-year-old University student who faces problems to speak in public. It has been also recorded that when she was in her first and second year, she chose subjects which with large lectures, where she could hide in the back of the lecture theatre and not speak to other students or participate in class discussion. She always has the fear of participating in any public events of her college. The symptoms which are shown by Heather is clearly matching to the criteria of Social Phobia criteria given by DSM V. Therefore, the above discussion suggests that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia.
Task 3
Social Phobia can be treated by overcoming the fear of certain circumstances that can provoke anxiety. For the treatment of social phobia, two types are therapies are generally applied. One is the Exposure Therapy, which a type of Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the other is Group Therapy.
CBT helps the patient to identify the anxieties and the circumstances that provokes anxiety. There are several methods by which the social anxiety can be controlled. Out of the lot, Exposure therapy is the best way to control social phobia. In exposure therapy, a professional counselor guides the patient to make themselves comfortable in public situations. In the initial stages, the counselor instructs the patient to imagine one to be in a social situation and gives suggestions to handle it without fearing. Once the counselor observes the patient can handle public confrontation without having any anxiety in their imagination, they are taken out in the external environment (Heimberg et al. 2014). This includes going out for a lunch or probably attending a party. After some public meetings, the patient gets confidence that nobody is judging them or evaluating them. Therefore, through tiny steps of exposure towards the external environment can fix the problem of social phobia in an individual. Group Therapy is another technique with which social phobia can be treated. In group therapy, multiple people meet another group of people who works on therapeutic goals. Each group comprises of five to ten individuals. While working together in a group. Participants explore their own issues in the context of various group processes. There are variations in group therapy, one is the self-help group where individuals with similar experiences hold meetings without the guidance of a professionals. The group therapy exposes the social phobic patients exposed to a external group which helps them to explore them more as a person. Group Therapy helps individuals to share their r own experiences and they can learn several things from each other (Caine, Wijesinghe & Winter, 2014).
For treating any mental disorder, time is needed. Treatment is done by shaping the behavior of an individual. Therefore, for treating a social phobic patient, the combination two types of treatment is needed. Firstly, exposure therapy is given at the initial stage and then group therapy is given. The combination of these two treatments helps the patient to overcome their social phobia.
References 
Caine, T. M., Wijesinghe, O. B. A., & Winter, D. A. (2014). Personal Styles in Neurosis (RLE: Group Therapy): Implications for Small Group Psychotherapy and Behaviour Therapy (Vol. 2). Routledge.
Craske, M. G., Treanor, M., Conway, C. C., Zbozinek, T., & Vervliet, B. (2014). Maximizing exposure therapy: an inhibitory learning approach. Behaviour research and therapy, 58, 10-23.
Ehde, D. M., Dillworth, T. M., & Turner, J. A. (2014). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for individuals with chronic pain: Efficacy, innovations, and directions for research. American Psychologist, 69(2), 153.
Heimberg, R. G., Hofmann, S. G., Liebowitz, M. R., Schneier, F. R., Smits, J. A., Stein, M. B., … & Craske, M. G. (2014). SOCIAL ANXIETY Disorder in DSM?5. Depression and anxiety, 31(6), 472-479.
Exercise 2
Task 1 Hyperlink
On Social Anxiety Disorder
Task 2
The above advertizement picturizes an individual who is suffering social phobia. Unerneith the picture, there is a website of the tharapy institution named AADA where people like them who is suffering from social phobia can seek therapy. AADA (Anxiety and depression Association of America) is an international NGO who is completely dedicated to the prevention treatment, and cure of anxiety, OCD, and depression. AADA’s mission is to focus on improving quality of life for those who suffer from anxiety disorders. Mental disorders still remains a stigmatized concept in society. The people all over the globe has a negative notion towards people who is suffering from such problems (Tsai & Bagozzi, 2014). The above advertizement takes a bold step towards these sort of problems. Social phobia is a common phenomenon and can be properly if detected in the intial stages and given proper therapies. The advertisement not only aware the society about this problem but also gives information about where to seek help. Therefore, through this advertisement the a change in the society is seen that mental problems are discussed through media publicly. This will give courage to the effected people and they can openly come out and seek help and lead a normal life.
Task 3
Social influences occurs when any external factor influences the behaviour, opinionsand emotions of the mass. Persuation is an umbrella term used for socila influences, belief and changes in the society. Social influence can be observed in several forms namely, Compliance (happens when people agrees with others but actually keeps their dimur decisions private), Identification ( happens when a person is influenced by another individual who is celebrated by the society) and Internalization (happens when people accepts a behaviour or belief and agrees to it both privately and publicly). Cialdini’s principles of social influence is based on six key priciples. Firstly, Reciprocity; which means usually to return a favor. Any social phenomenon is based on reciprocity (Dishion, 2016). Any social change will only happen if there is there is any reciprocity. The change is nedded to benif a society, for that a two sided give and take policy is very important. Secondly. Commitmrnt and Consistency includes the people who to commit anything or any idea or goal orally, then they are more likely to get honoured for their commitment because for estabblishing the idea or the goal. Thirdly, Social proof includes the changes done by the people to whom the societycan look up to (Lambert, 2017). Their experiments should bring such positive changes in their lives which will make their confederates to look up to them. Fourthly, Authority includes the confirmity towards a person who is celebrated by the society for their contributions towards the changes in the society. Fifthly, Liking involves the concept of attraction towards certain idea which is proposed to bring a change in the society. Lastly, Scarcity includes the scarcity of any factor that conquently raises the demand of the socity. As a result, the change in the society is necessary. 
References
Dishion, T. J. (2016). Social influences on executive functions development in children and adolescents: Steps toward a social neuroscience of predictive adaptive responses. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 44(1), 57-61.
Lambert, R. D. (2017). Workers, Factories and Social Changes in India. Princeton University Press.
Tsai, H. T., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2014). Contribution Behavior in Virtual Communities: Cogntiive, Emotional, and Social Influences. Mis Quarterly, 38(1), 143-163.
Yu, L., Yan, Z., Yang, X., Wang, L., Zhao, Y., & Hitchman, G. (2016). Impact of social changes and birth cohort on subjective well-being in Chinese older adults: A cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1990–2010. Social Indicators Research, 126(2), 795-812.
Exercise 3
Task 1
Behaviour is goverened by the external environment is world known phenomenon. The individuals needs are reflected by their requirments. The drives are the state of arousal that accompany an unfulfilled needs like huger and thirst. For selecting any course for higher studies in a University, one needs to have that need to drive to select the course. The student should have the urge and need to study that particular subject (Benach et al. 2014). The drive or the motivation if lacks for the subject chosen for further study can ruin the career of the students in near future. In addition, the cognitive perspective of motivation is also needed. The expectency theory and goal setting theories are also applied to have the motivation to select a subject for farther studies. The individual should get the motivation to achieve something in life and for that purpose an aim and goals needs to be set. Therefore, the behavioristic perspective and cognitive perspective is needed by the student to choose a subject to study in near future (Reeve, 2014).
Task 2
The self determination theory provides an approach where human motivation and their personality are used as a emperical method to employ a meta theory about organism that focuses on the inner resources of ones personality development ans their self regulation. Motivation concerns with energy, direction and persistence and equifinality- all aspects of activation and intention. Motivation has been the central issue in the fields of  psychology. There are basically two types of motivation. Intrinsic motivation which is charecterized by doing something which governed by inner drives and urges. In contrast, extrinsic motivation are governed by the external environment.
Task 3
For the above exercise it is assumed that the student have keen interest in biology.He opted for Biology to study in the University. The student has the urge and drive to continue his higher studied in the current topic. Therefore, for his own betterment, three factors needs to be considered, namely, Competency, Relatedness and Autonomy is used for the Lectures. Competence provides the control in outcome and experience mastery. So, the Lecures given in the class should be competend enough to provide the student ample knowledge of the subject. Relatedness includes interaction in the class and the student should feel connected to the exercises that are discussed in the class. Proper reciprocation is very much needed to get proper knowledge about the subject. Lastly, Autonomy provides the universal urge to be causal agents of one’s own life an act in harmony with one’s integrated self. Reflection of automy in the lectures helps the student to apply the facets of the subject n their own life.
The health care professionals often faces problem with different patients. A socially phobic patient has showed resistance to the treatment advices and also skipped follow ups of the treatment.
Therefore, for treating socially phobic patients, the clinicians has to make the patient bring in light his/her intrinsic motivation. A social phobic always shows resistance towards public interaction. In this case the therapist can use the Maslow’s theory of Motivation which comes under the Humanistic approach for Motivation, In the theory of motiation, the self esteem need gives the individual urge for being known in the society and earn respect from the society for thei work (Jackson et al. 2014). The socially phobic person will not have any urge to be recognized. This is because, for accepted by the society one has to interact with the society. This urge can be risen by triggering an individuals internal motivation. The therapist has to motivate and encourage the patient to have a goal in life. By giving direction to the patients therapist gives them a direction to their life. By directing them towards possible avenues to gather self esteem and be content life, the therapist tries to take away the fear of society from the patient. Therefore, by Humanistic Approach a social phobic patient can be cured.
References
Benach, J., Vives, A., Amable, M., Vanroelen, C., Tarafa, G., & Muntaner, C. (2014). Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual review of public health, 35, 229-253.
Benach, J., Vives, A., Amable, M., Vanroelen, C., Tarafa, G., & Muntaner, C. (2014). Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual review of public health, 35, 229-253.
Reeve, J. (2014). Understanding motivation and emotion. John Wiley & Sons.
Kacprzak-Biernacka, E., Skura-Madzia?a, A., Kopa?ski, Z., Brukwicka, I., Lishchynskyy, Y., & Mazurek, M. (2015). The Concept of Motivation, its Types and Motivation Subjects. Journal of Clinical Healthcare, 14(2014_3), 02-05.
Jackson, J. C., Santoro, M. J., Ely, T. M., Boehm, L., Kiehl, A. L., Anderson, L. S., & Ely, E. W. (2014). Improving patient care through the prism of psychology: application of Maslow’s hierarchy to sedation, delirium, and early mobility in the intensive care unit. Journal of critical care, 29(3), 438-444.

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Course Code: PSY111
University: Charles Sturt University

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Country: Australia

Answer 
Exercise 1
Task 1
In this case, it is clear that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia, which is a type of Anxiety Disorder.
Task 2
Social Phobia is commonly known as Social Anxiety Disorder. This disorder involves fear of certain situations that includes situations that are unfamiliar to them or any situation where an individual have the fear of being evaluated or watched by the external world. These circumstances may be so f…
Read
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