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PSY391 Personality And Performance

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PSY391 Personality And Performance

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Course Code: PSY391
University: Murdoch University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Question:

Provide a concise summary of the academic literature that has addressed the five personality domains and their expected relationships with tertiary academic performance.
Based on your perceptions of your academic performance [taking my performance as average like credit], do your IPIP results support the predicted relationships between personality traits and academic performance? Provide examples to substantiate your answer for the relevant trait domains.

*You will need to simply translate the statistics. Like for example, report a finding in the literature of the following: “A negative correlation between Neuroticism and academic achievement has been found by several researchers, r = -.xx, p = .xxx (relevant references here). This finding indicates that as individuals become more emotionally volatile, this is likely to have a detrimental impact on their subsequent academic performance.”
*And refer to my own scores in this way as well, for example: “My mean standardised score on Conscientiousness was M = 2.5. Based on a standard normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1, this score indicates that I am more than two standard deviations above the mean on Conscientiousness. This might be reflected in my behaviour by an increased attention to detail, more planning of my schedule, a neater office desk, completing my assigned tasks on times, and perhaps even some obsessive-compulsive tendencies.”
*Basically, I would need to see proper reporting of statistics. But you do need to translate them for me which also allows you to fulfill the requirement of describing relevance of the scores to you.

What validity considerations are important when looking at the relationship between your personality domain scores and their predictions about your academic performance?

When answering this question, please address the following as part of your answer:

What aspects of validity may impede or strengthen the accuracy of your trait domain scores as predictors of academic performance? Provide examples to substantiate how these aspects of validity may be directly relevant to the accuracy of these relationships.

Answer:

Standardized statistical indicator

The five domains are; agreeableness, Conscientiousness, openness, extraversion, neuroticism, and social desirability.

Agreeableness

The z-score of agreeableness
Taking the maximum score from the data dictionary of 120 and the mean to be 86.34
My score in agreeableness is 94
Therefore the probability score is 0.7673. This means that the probability of finding my agreeableness score higher than the mean is higher at 0.737 while the probability of finding my agreeableness lower than the mean score of the agreeableness is 0.263.
The probability of the score is 0.3632. This means that the probability of my consciousness less than 82.5 is 0.64 while the probability of my consciousness being higher than 82.5 is 0.36. my consciousness score is much lower compared to the mean score.
The probability of the score is 0.9382. this simply mean that the probability of finding my openness score higher than the mean is 0.94 compared to the probability of my score of openness being lower than the mean score of openness which is 0.06.

Extraversion

The extraversion score is 67. Their mean score is 77.16 The probability of the score is 0.2177. The probability of finding my extraversion score higher than the mean score is much lower at 0.2177 while the probability of finding my extraversion score lower than the mean score of extraversion is 0.78.

Neuroticism

My neuroticism score is 84. The mean score was 72.51.The probability of the score is 0.7764, this means that the probability of finding my neuroticisms score to be higher than the mean score of the neuroticism is 0.78 as compared to finding my neuroticism score lower than the mean score of neuroticism score which is 0.22.

Characteristics of me.

Based on the five traits; agreeableness, Conscientiousness, openness, extraversion, neuroticism

Agreeableness

On the agreeableness, we can see from the above scores that the score I had was 94. From the mean of the agreeableness trait we see it had a mean of 86.34. This trait fits me well because based on the 95% level of confidence, the percentage in which my score lies which is 76.73 is high enough. My score also go beyond the mean score but within the standard deviation. There this particular trait describe me. (Wang, et al., 2016)

Conscientiousness

On the trait Conscientiousness, the calculations from section gives that I had a score of 78. The mean from the data provided shows that Conscientiousness has the mean of 82.48. Though my score fall within the stretch of the standard deviation, consciousness does not characterize me well because of the probability of finding my score going beyond the mean score which only 0.36. (J, Boyce, Wood, & Brown, 2010)

Openness

The mean score of openness is 82.42 and my openness score is 97 out of the possible maximum of 120. The score from this score does give more characteristics of me. The probability of finding my openness score to be higher than the mean score is 93.86. My score goes beyond the stretch of the standard deviation proving that openness give more characteristics of me. (Shchebetenko, 2010)

Extraversion

The extraversion doesn’t give much of the characteristics of me. Extraversion score is 67 which is lower than the reach of standard deviation based on the mean. The z-score is much lower which gives the probability of only finding my score lower than the mean score to be 0.22.

Neuroticism

My score on the neuroticism is 84, which shows that neuroticism give more characteristics of me as we can see that the probability of finding my score higher than the mean score is 0.77.

Correspondence of the accuracy
Agreeableness

On me, there is high level of accuracy on my agreeability score and the way I perceive myself. The I have on the agreeableness fully describe me fully. This is because I can see and learn from my friends that am friendly, tactful and warm.  I always get along well with my friends and other people. Am also personate and optimistic about life. I also get close to people and cooperative. (Judge, T, Zapata, & C., 2014)

Conscientiousness

The consciousness score and how I know myself, do not give that level of correspondence. I am always aware of something or an object around or within the inside of me. Am always strongly feeling the awake and having that sense of soul and selfhood. My executive control of my head or system is always active.

Openness

The score of the openness and how I see myself corresponds to each other. I always tend to enjoy the things and new experiences and try them. I am always open-minded individual who is curious and imaginative. Sometimes I find it difficult to enjoy routine and rules put in place as I try to do things in a better way. I always have appreciation on the ideas and arts some consider not usual. (Hudson, W., & Roberts, 2014)

Extraversion

The score of the extraversion also give the right score according to how I know myself. They definitely correspond. The extraversion people have the energy and test the party life which is completely out of question in me. Am less outgoing and mostly very comfortable working by myself? Drawing attention either is not within me.

Neuroticism

The score of neuroticism and the way I know myself do correspond. I am able table stable and balanced even in the extreme situations. Negative emotions some of the time comes my way. Generally I am emotionally stable.
The above figure shows the normal distribution graph of the agreeableness personality trait. The graph shows a perfect normal distribution curve which is unimodal and not skewed. The red arrow shows my score on the agreeableness. (DONGEN & MØLLER, 2007)
The above figure shows the normal distribution graph of the conscientiousness personality trait. The graph shows a perfect normal distribution curve which is unimodal and not skewed. The red arrow shows my score on the conscientiousness.
The above figure shows the normal distribution graph of the openness personality trait. The graph shows a perfect normal distribution curve which is unimodal and not skewed. The red arrow shows my score on the openness.The above figure shows the normal distribution graph of the extraversion personality trait. The graph shows a perfect normal distribution curve which is unimodal and not skewed. The red arrow shows my score on the extraversion.
The above figure shows the normal distribution graph of the neuroticism personality trait. The graph shows a perfect normal distribution curve which is unimodal and not skewed. The red arrow shows my score on the neuroticism
Academic literature
One is considered to have conscientiousness when they are organized, goal oriented and disciplined. Neuroticism the personality referring to impulse control, anxiety and emotional anxiety. Openness is shown when one has preferred novelty and variety of stuff and the strong intellectual curiosity. Extraversion is when one high level of talkativeness, assertiveness and is social. Agreeableness is when someone is helpful, has sympathy towards others and cooperate with others to achieve something (V.I. & M.J., 2005).
Openness help student to think more deeply about an information and can easily encode an information. Openness can also help the students to mediate the relationships in the current findings of the research. The four learning styles; synthesis-analysis, the processing of the information, categorizing and the then organize, elaborative processing, methodical study and fact retention where processing of information so that we memorize the important information. (Wasylkiw, et al., 2010)
On the academic performance, conscientiousness has emerged to be able to predict the performance of exam. Conscientiousness and openness can predict an overall performance I academics. When conscientiousness, extraversion and openness are combined they can predict grade point average when students apply what is learned to real life. On the other side, neuroticism and academic performance are related negatively. Though the personality traits affects the performance, learning style also play a role in performance. (KRAVCHENKO V.I., 2005)
There has not been a considerable evidence to show that there is any relationship between the academic performance and personality traits and the style of learning of students when they are combined. Though in the medical schools it suggested that the learning styles and the personality traits can predict the performance of a student. (Perry, et al., 2010) (McCabe, O., & Fleeson, 2012)
Learning style has been found to some extent associated with the success in academics, however there are some mixed results concerning the relationship between academic successes, learning styles and personality traits. Conscientiousness and openness though, specifically was found to be related statistically with the academic success and learning styles, learning styles was found not significantly related to academic success. This has called for deeper examination of these personalities related to only some preferred styles of learning and how that can affect the overall achievement in academics.
The questions whether there is relationship between these three factors that is academic success, personality traits and the learning styles led to late research which aimed at filling the gaps if there can be some substantial evidence to show their relationships.  It was found out that individuals with openness traits and score high are eager to learn and has high intellectual capacity. The research shows that processing of information may be facilitated by curiosity. This therefore, shows that openness is positively related to elaborative processing and synthesis-analysis.
When these lead to deep desire for deeper understanding may bring high academic performance. Individual who are conscientious are likely to be achievers. They have strong ethic. They are likely to strategize in their studies hence conscientiousness is positively related to learning styles. This is because they are goal oriented and disciplined. The cooperative attitude of the people with agreeableness trait, it is positively related to learning styles, they therefore are positively associated with the grade point average. Individuals with neuroticism has a lot of anxiety, negative emotions and self-doubt they are likely to disengaged from the process of learning. They are likely to give up when faced with difficulty. Neuroticism is therefore negatively related the learning style and grade point average. Extraversion may be specific to the context. (Thilo Deckersbach, 2006)
Openness
From the research we found out that the individual with opennesstrait are likely to perform highly in academics. This is because they have eager to learn and the strong intellectual capacity. And since deeper understanding is facilitated by the curiosity, my performance has been high because of this. Applying the ability to know more about something and the eagerness to learn has helped me in this. It improved my learning styles to aim at scoring high. (Tribout, et al., 2008) (Connelly, et al., 2014)
Conscientiousness
Being that the research indicate that the people of conscientiousness trait are high achievers facilitated by the strong work ethic and the ability to deliberately strategize on focused learning. The trait of being disciplined and goal oriented also relate them to the grade point average. I can relate my performance on those pillars as my performance in the academics. (Perry, et al., 2010) (Cox, Richard, Jones, & Edward, 2010)
Agreeableness
This is a trait which is too much beneficial because, if you have it, there is high level cooperative attitudes in them. This attitude help me to work efficiently together to achieve greatly. Personal growth is also possible as you get to learn from other people. Meeting deadline is self-driving and in academic it very important hence academic achievement is inevitable. Other characteristics I have here discussed above are the trusting and help other people help me to achieve more.
Neuroticism
Even though the above traits have helped me to scale high, one trait, neuroticism has had some negative effect on my performance. I have to agree that if not all, but some of the characteristics inhabited by the people with neuroticism has had toll in me. The ability not to persist when things get tough is one of the elements which sometimes retard my academic achievement. The research done on the same and come out to likely have negative effect on the four learning styles and grade point average confirm it all.
Extraversion
On the extraversion, it is context-specific and may not affect much of my performance only when it is combined with some traits like conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness.Factors impeding or strengthening the accuracy of my trait domain
Impediments of the accuracy of the personality trait on the academic performance and grade point average.
Form the analysis of the big five personality traits that can influence the performance we see that neuroticism can negatively affect the academic performance. This can sometimes work differently in different people. This is because from the description of the traits I realized that to some extent I have the neuroticism traits, but through management and making up for lost time I can still manage in the academic success context. The combination of all the traits can also pose challenges since it will be very difficult to identify the trait contributing to academic performance. The way other people live their lives can also bring other challenges in determining the real trait bringing any effect if there is. Some people will show today the signs of being conscientiousness while tomorrow they show signs of openness and not conscientiousness anymore. Such people can affect the accuracy of the results.
Strengths of the accuracy of the personality traits on the academic performance and grade point average.
Many people, even though combines the combines different traits for example, one person has extraversion, openness and neuroticism, some of these traits will dominate over the other making the dominating traits expressing themselves more than the dominated ones. There are some people who will be not willing at all to associate people in terms of partying, going to clubs but decides to stay at home alone, but are very cooperative in terms of building a team to steer a certain goal together. It will be very easy to draw conclusion from such people, that even though, they possess some traits which may be considered negative towards academic performance, and they are beneficial to the person owning them.
References
Connelly, S., B., Ones, S., D., Davies, E., S., & Birkland, A. (2014). Opening Up Openness: A Theoretical Sort Following Critical Incidents Methodology and a Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Trait Family Measures. A Theoretical Sort Following Critical Incidents Methodology and a Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Trait Family Measures.
Cox, Richard, D., Jones, & Edward, T. R. (2010). Two conscientious guinea pigs: A participant student view of the conscientiousness index. A participant student view of the conscientiousness index.
DONGEN, S. V., & MØLLER, A. P. (2007). On the distribution of developmental errors: comparing the normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution.
Hudson, W., N., & Roberts, B. W. (2014). Goals to change personality traits: Concurrent links between personality traits, daily behavior, and goals to change oneself. Concurrent links between personality traits, daily behavior, and goals to change oneself.
J, C., Boyce, Wood, A. M., & Brown, G. D. (2010). The dark side of conscientiousness: Conscientious people experience greater drops in life satisfaction following unemployment. Conscientious people experience greater drops in life satisfaction following unemployment.
Judge, T, Zapata, & C. (2014). THE PERSON-SITUATION DEBATE REVISITED: EFFECT OF SITUATION STRENGTH AND TRAIT ACTIVATION ON THE VALIDITY OF THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS IN PREDICTING JOB PERFORMANCE. EFFECT OF SITUATION STRENGTH AND TRAIT ACTIVATION ON THE VALIDITY OF THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS IN PREDICTING JOB PERFORMANCE.
KRAVCHENKO V.I., M. M. (2005). THE INFLUENCE OF AROMAS ESSENTIAL OILS ON COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL OF EXTRAVERSION AND NEUROTICISM.
McCabe, O., K., & Fleeson, W. (2012). What Is Extraversion For? Integrating Trait and Motivational Perspectives and Identifying the Purpose of Extraversion.
Perry, Jansen, S., Hunter, M., E., Witt, A., L., . . . J., K. (2010). P = f (Conscientiousness × Ability): Examining the Facets of Conscientiousness. Examining the Facets of Conscientiousness.
Perry, S. J., Dubin, D. F., & Witt, L. (2010). he interactive effect of extraversion and extraversion dissimilarity on exhaustion in customer-service employees: A test of the asymmetry hypothesis. A test of the asymmetry hypothesis.
Shchebetenko, S. A. (2010). “the best man in the world”: attitudes toward personality traits. attitudes toward personality traits.
Thilo Deckersbach, K. K. (2006). Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion.
Tribout, T., Iannuccelli, N., Druet, T., Gilbert, H., Juliette, R., Ronan, G., . . . Roy, P. L. (2008). Detection of quantitative trait loci for reproduction and production traits in Large White and French Landrace pig populations (Open Access publication).
V.I., K., & M.J., M. (2005). THE INFLUENCE OF AROMAS ESSENTIAL OILS ON COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL OF EXTRAVERSION AND NEUROTICISM.
Wang, M, J., Hartl, C., A., Laursen, Brett, . . . H., K. (2016). The high costs of low agreeableness: Low agreeableness exacerbates interpersonal consequences of rejection sensitivity in U.S. and Chinese adolescents.
Wasylkiw, L., R, L., Fabrigar, Rainboth, S., Reid, A., & Steen, C. (2010). Neuroticism and the Architecture of the Self: Exploring Neuroticism as a Moderator of the Impact of Ideal Self-Discrepancies on Emotion. Exploring Neuroticism as a Moderator of the Impact of Ideal Self-Discrepancies on Emotion.

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