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Review On Suicide And Its Prevention

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Review On Suicide And Its Prevention

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Review On Suicide And Its Prevention

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Question:
Discuss about the Review On Suicide And Its Prevention.
 
 
Answer:

Literature review
Florentine and Crane (2010) have discusses the approach of imitating the access to the suicide method strategized by many national suicide prevention organisations. These authors have analysed two main attempts that these associations use to limit access are physical and cognitive. In their analysis, the authors have reviewed physical imitation of attempting suicide in the lights of access to catalytic converters, domestic gas, firearms, jumping, paracetamol, pesticides and the methods used in prisons. On the other hand, the cognitive impacts have been discussed mainly with the regard to media to provide access to the technical information as well as sensational and inaccurate portrayals of attempting suicide. This literature has drawn psychological models of suicidal behavior then explored the methods to limit access to suicide (Haring, 2011). In addition to this, the literature has also pointed out the potential problems and limitations to take initiatives for eliminating substitute or alternative methods which the attempters use when their fail to commit suicide. These authors have mainly supported the psychological prevention strategy to prevent such issues.
O’Connell (2012), on the other hand have discussed the fast-increasing trends of attempting suicide among all the age groups of people. To him, these issues can be reduced by the appropriate care of the advanced practice psychiatric nurses who possess necessary skills to intervene in the suicidal crisis. To the author not every healthcare practitioner identifies and deal with acutely suicidal children and adolescents and they will not feel comfortable to recognize and interven in the suicidal crisis but the advanced practice psychiatric nurses can easily prevent the second attempt of the victims (Mian & Sufi, 2015).
The scholars like Wu, Chen and Yip (2012), have focused their study of suicide and its prevention to the examination of the statistics of suicide attempts among the Asians and strategized some methods to reduce these fast-growing incidents. To these authors, the Asian countries lacks systematic exploration of suicide methods than the countries of Europe or America. This literature therefore, has examined the leading trends of suicide methods in the Asian countries. In addition to this, the paper has also discussed their age as well as sex specific features which have implications for the suicide prevention. According to the authors, the suicide methods if the Asians reflect their particular economic, socio-cultural and religious conditions in that region. Among the most frequent t methods that the people of this regions prefer are charcoal burning, native plant poisoning, pesticide poisoning, self-immolation finally jumping from high rise buildings (Fitzpatrick & Hooker, 2017). With the introduction of technologies, the methods of suicide have recorded more changes. This is the reason why the scholars have strategized to increase information in the societies so that the communities of these regions can monitor as well as control the innovative methods of suicide among the younger generations. These will also spread knowledge so that the practices of suicide technologies can be prevented.
 
Nordentoft (2011) have detailed an effective process of preventing suicide through the USI model. The author has analysed the preventive model of universal, selected and indicated inhibition which have different application for different groups or individuals. The universal prevention intervention is mainly directed to entire population (Caine et al., 2018). On the contrary, the selective preventive intervention is directed towards the individuals. This sis because these people are at greater risk t o have a more effective suicidal behavior. The indicated prevention intervention is targeted at the individuals or the victims who already have begun the self-destructive behavior. The author has mainly focused on the psychological treatment of the attempters so that the risk of second or third attempt do not take place. The author has focused on the method of restriction to firearms and exposure to carbon monoxide gas on the universal prevention levels. In order to apply prevention in the selective level, the author have found out the method of mitigating the risk for suicide in the homeless people and schizophrenic patients (Wexler, & Gone, 2015). To the indicated level of prevention, proper studies of fatal as well as non-fatal suicide laws after suicide attempts have been mentioned. Finally, the author has presented the evidence and efficiency of the preventive measures for reducing attempt repetition rates.
To Fogarty et al. (2018), the attempt to create awareness about suicide and the methods of prevention has limited effect on the men than the worm of the same age or cultural background. This literature has analyzed the effect of suicide attempt prevention on the people with a grand and dependable way so that the readers get perfect evidence that how much the efforts of preventing suicide attempt or the strategies work on people. The author gas conducted a secondary qualitative interview with 35 suicide attempters with 42 families along with friends so that the effect can be explored more intensely. By using thematic analysis techniques, alongside bracketing, construction and contextualization the author has pointed out that there are five tensions in the perspectives of the attempters of suicide and their support networks. These five tensions have effectively complicated the methods which are extensively used to strategize the suicide attempts or managing the risks. These tensions are first, respecting privacy and monitoring risk, second differentiating normal and risky behavioral changes, thirdly familiarity and anonymity in the personal information revelation, fourthly maintaining autonomy and imposing restraints for limiting risks and finally the perceived needs and failures of the external supportive services. At the end of this study, the author has concluded that the tension among these different perspectives have increased a systemic stress which have compounded problems as well as risks, thereby decreased the efficiency of detection as well as interventions for the men at the risk of committing suicide (Swanson, Bonnie & Appelbaum, 2015).
Conclusion
Therefore, it can be concluded that the topic of suicide has gained concern of the scholars of different culture, nations and backgrounds. This is the reason why there are ample research on this particular subject and most of the are focused in the exploring of methods of preventing these attempts. Moreover, the literatures have discussed the reasons of this psychological crisis as well as the situations of different victims towards this negative aspect of life. Most of these literatures focus on the improving psychological conditions of these attempters so that the second attempt do not happen. Hence the method of risk communication with the trained healthcare experts have been referred. This will reduce reliance on single source support and increase intervention of flexibility in responding the individual needs.
 
References
Caine, E. D., Reed, J., Hindman, J., & Quinlan, K. (2018). Comprehensive, integrated approaches to suicide prevention: practical guidance. Injury prevention, 24(Suppl 1), i38-i45.
Fitzpatrick, S. J., & Hooker, C. (2017). A ‘systems’ approach to suicide prevention: radical change or doing the same things better?.
Florentine, J. B., & Crane, C. (2010). Suicide prevention by limiting access to methods: A review of theory and practice. Social Science & Medicine, 70(10), 1626-1632. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.029
Fogarty, A. S., Spurrier, M., Player, M. J., Wilhelm, K., Whittle, E. L., Shand, F., . . . Proudfoot, J. (2018). Tensions in perspectives on suicide prevention between men who have attempted suicide and their support networks: Secondary analysis of qualitative data. Health Expectations, 21(1), 261-269. doi:10.1111/hex.12611
Haring, C. (2011). JS02-03 – suicidology and suicide prevention. European Psychiatry, 26, 2001-2001. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(11)73704-X
Mian, A., & Sufi, A. (2015). House of debt: How they (and you) caused the Great Recession, and how we can prevent it from happening again. University of Chicago Press.
Nordentoft, M. (2011). Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 35(4), 848-853. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.11.038
O’Connell, K. L. (2012). Child and adolescent suicide. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 25(3), 111-112. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6171.2012.00333.x
Swanson, J. W., Bonnie, R. J., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2015). Getting serious about reducing suicide: more “how” and less “why”. Jama, 314(21), 2229-2230.
Wexler, L. M., & Gone, J. P. (2015). Exploring Possibilities for Indigenous Suicide Prevention. Critical Suicidology: Transforming Suicide Research and Prevention for the 21st Century, 56-70.
Wu, K. C., Chen, Y., & Yip, P. S. F. (2012). Suicide methods in asia: Implications in suicide prevention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(4), 1135-1158. doi:10.3390/ijerph9041135

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