The male reproductive system involves seminal vesicles, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prostate, epididymis, and urethra. The testes include seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells, while of the tubules is about 30-65 cm long. In each of the testes, there are about 500 tubules, and the cells mature into spermatozoa.1 There are also sertoli cells that act as the promoters of germ cells. Male infertility is associated with poor spermatogenesis when reproductive cells produce insufficient sperm. The low work of tubules and damage to them lead to a lack of releasing and maturation of interstitial cells. For example, infertility can be caused by a lack of secretory function of the gonads due to congenital or acquired pathology. This form of male infertility is related to a decrease in sperm secretion in the testicles. The cause of this condition is primarily hypogonadism, in which the production of sperm and / or testosterone is disrupted in the testes.
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Make infertility can be associated with sperm disorders, retrograde ejaculation, immunology, hormones, medication, and varicoceles. In a combined form, hormonal disorders of a different nature are combined with excretory disorders caused by inflammation of the genital organs. It is known that physicochemical shifts in the prostate gland that occur during inflammation cause a decrease in androgenic saturation of the body with a simultaneous increase in the estrogenic activity of the testicles.1 Comorbidity is one of the features of the modern urological diseases, such as chronic prostatitis and age-related androgenic deficiency that are among the most common diseases in men. In other words, both the anatomy and physiology of male infertility are complex issues that require a comprehensive approach to prevent and treat male reproductive system diseases.
Schlegel, PN, Katzovitz, MA. Male reproductive physiology. Urologic Principles and Practice. 2020. 41-62. Web.