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The Mental Health Nursing

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The Mental Health Nursing

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The Mental Health Nursing

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Question:
Discuss about the Mental Health Nursing ?
 
 
Answer:

Case study
Mr. Brown is seeing a psychiatrist and is on brown medication which he takes regularly. He is therefore, unable to understand why he is still in the hospital. He has been traveling overseas for the past four months. Since then he is no longer on depot and is on oral medication. He reports that he had a good stay and  socialized well with friends. However, he  says that he has not been sleeping well and that, there is someone who is constantly talking to him in his sleep asking for staff. However, he denies being paranoid. He is facing a relapse due to the failure of complying with medication. He also denies using drugs or smoking .Mr. Brown lives with his brother who  is a student in UWS for nursing and he is now in his third year. He is a Christian and works as a cleaner in public places. 
Recovery Model
A recovery model can be said to be a conceptual framework, a vision, a process, or an outlook. It is, however, hard to fully define the recovery model. Nevertheless, the fact is that the recovery can restore a good and meaningful life despite one suffering from a serious mental illness that is according to Deegan and Anthony (2014). The recovery model is important for a clinician who wants to understand people who are suffering from medical illness and the best care, support, and the opportunities that the person has for developing. Despite the patients not having control over their symptoms, they have a chance of not controlling their lives. This person suffering from the mental illness and has psychiatric disabilities can have effective social rehabilitation and stability (Taylor, 2015). Mr. Brown should undergo a recovery model to eliminate the challenges he is going through in his life, therefore an effective recovery framework should ensure the patient lives a quality life despite his health issues.
The recovery has some distinguishing features such that it focuses on the whole person not only his or her symptoms; it is not a function of one’s theory about what causes the mental illness. Additional features include that, the person can fully recover from psychiatric illness and that one can recover even if the mental illness symptoms can reoccur (Demyttenaere, 2014). In the recovery model, the patients are not responsible for their disease but are responsible for their solution. This model should have an organized support system that aims at attending to patient needs.
The application of the recovery model to people with mental disorders came from the ex- patient movement. This movement was meant to advocate for self-help initiative. The United States started this initiative in the late 1980s.Developments to this model were fueled by studying patients who had major illnesses. Using this model it was discovered there was the partial recovery of this person who was suffering from psychiatric disorders. The testimonies from the person suffering from mental disorder  led to its development.  In this case, an effective recovery system should be instituted with the aim of meeting the needs of those patients with mental illness.
As a health care provider, in order to help the mental patient, the recovery model seemed to be the best option. Kraepelin (2015) defined dementia praecox as a condition that is gradually deteriorating. This has posed a difficult for the clinicians to talk the credibility of recovery model of the sick person (Gurin, 2013). This has led to frustration between the clinicians, the patients’ families, and patients.  This relationship can also be unsatisfying and not –collaborative. One of the features of the recovery model is that the patients should understand that it is not necessary for them to recover fully from these symptoms. For the families and clients who at the most time are waiting for their symptoms to go away so that they can continue with their lives. In other circumstances, clients get angry with health care providers if their symptoms do not go away and their lives do not improve.
For a person suffering from mental illness, it may be hard for a clinician to talk to the patient about recovering. The patient should realize that he or she is responsible for his or her own recovery. There is a two process. The first one involves the treatment of the illness of the patient and then the final involve rehabilitating the patient. The patient most of the time is usually concentrating on how to better their life while the clinician is busy concentrating on how they will treat the patient. This can lead to communication barriers between the patient and the professionals, as they will complain there is the lack of communication. 
 
Implementation of the Model
For health providers applying the recovery model, the following elements would be very important:

Hope

It would be wise as a clinician to nurture hope to the patient. This is a very important road to recovery. Hope includes optimism and the willingness of the patient to persevere through setbacks and uncertainty. Hope may however not come gradually but comes as a step by step. It can also mark a turning point for such a person. Having hope involves failure, disappointments, and getting hurt.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the recovery model is meant to restore a sense of self. The sense of self can be achieved through positive withdrawal. This involves the negotiation of public space and regulating social involvement. One should do this in a meaningful way or method. This also involves nurturing one’s psychological space. This is important in understanding interests, spirituality and a sense of self. This process is largely facilitated by mutuality interpersonal acceptance and it often challenges negative connective messages that come from the society.

Secure base

A sufficient income, free from violence, access to healthcare and good houses are been proposed. It has been advised that recovery starts at home. Good services need the patients to build on their visions and strengths.

Empowerment and inclusions

The clinicians should work towards empowering the patient and advising them to become more self-determined ( Regier 2012), this is an important element to recovery. This can also mean developing the patient’s confidence so that they can be able to make assertive decisions. The patients should also challenge stigmatization and prejudice about their mental disorder for them to be included in the society.

Supportive relationship

The presence of others who do believe in the patient’s potential to recover is important in the recovery.Clinicians can only offer a limited relationship to the patient and help in fostering hope. The relationship between friends and families and the society is said to be very important. It is said that the one-way relationship can lead to the patient being devalued.  

Coping strategies

This is said to be an important element. This can involve psychotherapy or medication. The patient should be advised on ways on how to cope with adverse effects of dealing with the medication. They should also have coping strategies on how to deal with problems and how to manage personal traits. The patient should be able to identify key points of stress points that can lead to crisis and how to deal with them.
 
Barriers to this model
In order to successfully treat mental disorders, one requires having access to health care providers and supporting services. Often these services are sometimes not available or are not fully utilized in many countries (Jahoda, 2000). Lack of medicine leads to low access to treatments of psychological disorders. Community-based care is also very limited in third world countries.  Therefore, the unavailability of facilities that cater the needs of such patients is the leading cause of suffering and health disparities to people with mental disorders.
In third world countries, many of the patients cannot afford medication due to their high prices. This leads to the financial barrier to the patient. Many of these countries do not cover medical disorders in their insurances, making these health care services unaffordable to the patient. In addition, there is the lack of a public budget that involves mental health. i  
There is the lack of mental disorder policies (Shapsa, 2015).These policies are very important in coordinating and implementing health care services. Almost all countries do not have health policy or plan. Mental health policies have not been revised in many countries and have no laws or rights that do protect people with mental illnesses.
Lack of knowledge about mental illness can make people fail in recognizing a person suffering from mental disorder. This can also prevent them from seeking treatment. This may also pose a problem, as the families may not know how they are supposed to care for the sick patient. Stigma is another barrier as it prevents patients from seeking treatment, as they do not want to be labeled or prejudiced.
 
Overcoming the Barriers
Mental disorder patient should have access to empowerment, responsibility, and support. The services offered to this patient should be personal so as to meet their needs, flexible and culturally competent. The family and the community at large should also be involved in on services and plans that should be offered to the patients. The services that are to be offered to this patient should be coordinated by the state, local and federal participation.
The mental health has now developed services and practices so as to provide community-based care to the people with mental disorders. In order to be effective, the service components must be coordinated in an integrated and comprehensive system of care.
There is no simple or single solution in addressing the needs of people suffering from mental illnesses.There is also very little need of technology especially for patients who suffer from mental disease and are supposed to be admitted or discharged from the hospital. The partnership between the private sector and the government is important when finding a solution to overcoming barriers facing people who are suffering from mental disorder. Methods that can be used to overcome these barriers include:

The government and the private sector should research effective treatment for patients suffering from serious mental illnesses.
They should also facilitate the services and treatment that are required by people suffering from mental illnesses.
The government and the private sector should work so as to reduce stigma that is directed to people suffering from mental illnesses
The private sector and the government should create services and programs that are appropriately culturally.
The government and the private sector should enhance initiatives that address the fragmentation of services.

 
Conclusion
The paper has identified a clinical case study for a mentally ill patient. Mentally ill persons need specialized care that will help them lead a safe and quality life. The paper has also discussed on the recovery model that is to be used in order to meet the needs of this person. Further, the paper has discussed on the strategies to be used in implementing the model and the critique of the model and also on how to effectively address the barriers facing the model. In this case, through research and intervention from the services, people living with a mental disorder can have a successful life in the community through the right treatment, support, and good housing. However, there is no main way of addressing the services that are needed by patients suffering from mental illnesses especially for those who await discharge from the hospital. There is also very little need of technology when dealing with the mentally disordered. The field of mental health has come up with services and a set of practices in order to give community based care.

 
References

World Health Organization.Dept. of Mental Health, & Substance Abuse.(2005). Mental health atlas 2005.World Health Organization.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (Great Britain), & National Institute for Clinical Excellence (Great Britain). (2002). Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in primary and secondary care (Vol. 1). National Institute for Clinical Excellence.
Jahoda, M. (2000).Current concepts of positive mental health.
World Health Organization. (2013). The World Health Report 2013: Mental health: new understanding, new hope. World Health Organization.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity, a Supplement to Mental Health, a Report of the Surgeon General. Vol. 2.
Gurin, G., Veroff, J., & Feld, S. (2014). Americans view their mental health: A nationwide interview survey.
Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (2014). Illusion and well-being: a social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological bulletin, 103(2), 193.
Abuse, S. (2013). Mental Health Services. Substance abuse—costs to society. https://www. samhsa. gov/OAS/srcbk/costs. htm.
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, J., …&Polidori, G. (2014). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.Jama, 291(21), 2581-2590.
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, J., …&Polidori, G. (2014). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.Jama, 291(21), 2581-2590.
Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Locke, B. Z., Keith, S. J., Judd, L. L., & Goodwin, F. K. (2012). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. Jama, 264(19), 2511-2518.
Goldberg, D. P., & Huxley, P. (2012). Common mental disorders: a bio-social model. Tavistock/Routledge.
Goldberg, D. P., & Huxley, P. (2016). Common mental disorders: a bio-social model. Tavistock/Routledge.
Mittal, V. A., & Walker, E. F. (2011).Dyskinesias, tics, and psychosis: Issues for the next Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders. Psychiatry research, 189(1), 158.
American Psychiatric Association,& American Psychiatric Association. (2000). DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 75.
SHAPSE, S. N. (2015). THE DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS

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